EN
Yellow-eyed Penguin Megadyptes antipodes



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2ade; B2ab(ii,iii,v)c(iv) A2ade; B2ab(ii,iii,v)c(iv); C2b

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Endangered A2ade; B2ab(ii,iii,v)c(iv)
2016 Endangered B2ab(ii,v)c(iv)
2012 Endangered B2b(iii,v)c(iv)
2010 Endangered B2b(iii)+c(iv)
2008 Endangered B2b(iii)+c(iv)
2007 Endangered
2005 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 395,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 80,400 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 380 medium
Number of locations 12 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2528-3480 medium estimated 2015
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 3 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7 - - -

Population justification: There are estimated to be around 1,700 breeding pairs (3,400 breeders), with an estimated 60% of these in the sub-Antarctic (Auckland Campbell Islands) (Seddon et al. 2013). There is very little movement between the mainland and sub-Antarctic and genetic analyses reveal three distinct sub-populations (mainland New Zealand including Stewart Island, and the sub-Antarctic Auckland and Campbell Islands), which should be managed as separate conservation units (Boessenkool et al. 2009). Little is known about the suspected “species stronghold” on the sub-Antarctic Islands. The Auckland Islands population has never seen a comprehensive census but judging from a brief reconnaissance in 1989 may support an estimated 520-570 pairs (Moore 1992). The Campbell Island population was last estimated in 1992 at 350-540 pairs (Moore 2001). Stewart Island and outliers were estimated at 220-400 pairs in 1994, dropping to 178 pairs in 1999-2001 (Massaro and Blair 2003). Annual nest counts in most South Island breeding areas reveal considerable population fluctuations in the past; since 1996 the population has declined by 76% (Mattern et al. 2017). In 2011-2012 South Island's south-east coast was thought to hold 452 pairs (Seddon et al. 2013), but in 2015, a total of only 216 breeding pairs were counted on the South Island (Melanie Young, DOC; unpublished data).

Trend justification: The species is thought to be declining overall as a result of a number of threatening processes, principally introduced predators, habitat conversion and disturbance. It has been suggested that the population on South Island may show fluctuations, but evidence shows a 76% on the Otago peninsula between 1996 and 2015 (Mattern et al. 2017), and it is appears to be declining on Stewart Island too (D. Houston in litt. 2012). Therefore, overall declines have been estimated to fall in the range 50-79% over the past three generations (21 years).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
New Zealand N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
New Zealand Adams Island
New Zealand Aramoana Otago Harbour
New Zealand Auckland Islands 2 (near-shore)
New Zealand Banks Peninsula
New Zealand Campbell Islands
New Zealand Campbell Islands (nearshore)
New Zealand Canterbury (offshore)
New Zealand Catlins Coast
New Zealand Dunedin Coast (offshore)
New Zealand Enderby Group
New Zealand Main Auckland Island
New Zealand Moeraki Katiki Point
New Zealand North Coast Rakiura
New Zealand North Otago
New Zealand North Otago (offshore)
New Zealand Northern Titi Muttonbird Islands
New Zealand Otago Peninsula
New Zealand Paterson Inlet The Neck
New Zealand Port Adventure
New Zealand Port Pegasus
New Zealand Rakiura (offshore)
New Zealand Raratoka Centre Island
New Zealand Ruapuke
New Zealand South Otago (offshore)
New Zealand Southern South Island (offshore)
New Zealand Whenua Hou Codfish Island

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Forest Subantarctic major breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major resident
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major resident
Shrubland Subantarctic major resident
Shrubland Temperate major breeding
Altitude 0 - 75 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Mustela erminea Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Mustela furo Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Plasmodium relictum Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Sus domesticus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Phocarctos hookeri Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic species/disease of unknown origin - Corynebacterium amycolatum Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic species/disease of unknown origin - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Megadyptes antipodes. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 15/10/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 15/10/2019.