EN
Yellow-eyed Penguin Megadyptes antipodes



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2ade+4abde A2ade+3bde+4abde

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Endangered A2ade+4abde
2018 Endangered A2ade; B2ab(ii,iii,v)c(iv)
2016 Endangered B2ab(ii,v)c(iv)
2012 Endangered B2b(iii,v)c(iv)
2010 Endangered B2b(iii)+c(iv)
2008 Endangered B2b(iii)+c(iv)
2007 Endangered
2005 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 395,000 medium
Number of locations 8-9 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2600-3000 medium estimated 2020
Population trend Decreasing medium inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9.9 - - -

Population justification: Past estimates suggested there were around 1,700 breeding pairs (3,400 breeders), with an estimated 60% of these in the sub-Antarctic (Auckland Campbell Islands) (Seddon et al. 2013), but recent declines on mainland New Zealand indicate the total population is lower that previously thought. Surveys in the Auckland Islands in 2017 estimated 577 pairs (Muller et al., 2020). The Campbell Island population was last estimated in 1992 at 350-540 pairs (Moore 2001). Stewart Island and outliers were estimated at 220-400 pairs in 1994, dropping to 178 pairs in 1999-2001 (Massaro and Blair 2003). In 2011-2012 South Island's south-east coast was thought to hold 452 pairs (Seddon et al. 2013), in 2015, there were 252 breeding pairs counted on the South Island, while in 2019, the total number of breeding pairs counted in the South Island was 227 (DOC; unpublished data). Based on these most recent estimates, the global population is estimated to be in the range of 2,684 - 3,064 mature individuals, rounded here to 2,600 - 3,000 mature individuals.

There is very little movement between the mainland and sub-Antarctic and genetic analyses reveal two distinct sub-populations (mainland New Zealand including Stewart Island, and the sub-Antarctic Auckland and Campbell Islands; Boessenkool et al. 2009). 

Trend justification: The species is thought to be declining overall as a result of a number of threatening processes, principally introduced predators, habitat conversion, changes in the marine environment, and disturbance. 

It has been suggested that the population on the South Island may show fluctuations, but population modelling of a well-studied colony on the Otago Peninsular showed rather that a dramatic decline has taken place: a 76% decline between 1996 and 2015 (Mattern et al., 2017). A consolidation of breeding numbers over the past 20 years in light of this decline reinforces the concern (New Zealand Department of Conservation [DOC] 2020, Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu, Department of Conservation, Yellow-eyed Penguin Trust, and Fisheries New Zealand. 2020): in 1999 there were 741 breeding pairs in the northern population (including Stewart Island/Rakiura  and surrounding islands), while the total recorded in 2019 is 265 pairs. This is equivalent to a 78.5% decline over three generations (29.7 years, after Bird et al. 2020). The decline appears to have accelerated after 2012: a 52% decline was recorded across the South Island between 2012 and 2019 (Seddon et al. 2013, DOC unpublished data, 2020). In 2011-2012 South Island's south-east coast was thought to hold 452 pairs (Seddon et al. 2013), in 2015, there were 252 breeding pairs counted on the South Island, while in 2018/2019, the total number of breeding pairs counted in the South Island was 227 (DOC; unpublished data). On Te Rere, Southland, the population has declined from 81 individuals in 2008, to 20 in 2018 and nests from 23 to 5 in the same time (Wood, 2018). The population size on Stewart Island and outliers were estimated at 220-400 pairs in 1994, dropping to 178 pairs in 1999-2001 (Massaro and Blair 2003).

Trajectories in the sub-Antarctic populations are not known but there is no evidence of declines on the Auckland islands between 1989 and 2017 (Moore 1992, Muller et al. 2020). The Campbell Island population has not been assessed since 1992. In light of the very rapid declines in the northern population and poor knowledge of the southern, overall declines are suspected to fall in the range 50-79% over the past three generations (29.7 years). These declines are likely to continue at this rate in the near future, however they are of such magnitude in the north that the contribution of this population to the overall population size will mean that the future rate of decline is suspected to be at a reduced rate.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
New Zealand N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
New Zealand Otago Peninsula
New Zealand Fiordland - West Coast South Island (South) (offshore)
New Zealand Campbell Islands
New Zealand Campbell Islands
New Zealand Auckland Islands
New Zealand Banks Peninsula
New Zealand Paterson Inlet The Neck
New Zealand Crayfish Island
New Zealand Waikawa Harbour
New Zealand Catlins Coast
New Zealand Otago Peninsula (Penguin Beach)
New Zealand Otago Peninsula (Alfred and Cecily)
New Zealand Otago Peninsula (Boulder Beach)
New Zealand Otago Peninsula (Cape Saunders)
New Zealand Otago Peninsula (Dicks Bush)
New Zealand Otago Peninsula (Highcliff)
New Zealand Otago Peninsula (Papanui)
New Zealand Otago Peninsula (Reids Beach)
New Zealand Otago Peninsula (Ryans Beach)
New Zealand Otago Peninsula (Sandfly Bay)
New Zealand Otago Peninsula (Sandymount)
New Zealand Otago Peninsula (Victory Beach)
New Zealand Port Pegasus
New Zealand Northern Titi Muttonbird Islands
New Zealand Stewart Island / Rakiura
New Zealand Whenua Hou Codfish Island
New Zealand Stewart Island / the rest
New Zealand Port Adventure
New Zealand Dusky Sound Wet Jacket Arm
New Zealand Banks Peninsula
New Zealand North Otago
New Zealand Otago Peninsula
New Zealand Codfish Island/Whenua Hou
New Zealand North Coast Rakiura
New Zealand Northern Muttonbird (Titi) Islands
New Zealand Paterson Inlet - The Neck
New Zealand Port Adventure
New Zealand Port Pegasus
New Zealand Main Auckland Island
New Zealand Enderby Group
New Zealand Ocean Island
New Zealand Rose Island
New Zealand Ewing Island
New Zealand Adams Island
New Zealand Campbell Island
New Zealand Aramoana Otago Harbour
New Zealand Raratoka Centre Island
New Zealand Ruapuke
New Zealand Southern Titi Muttonbird Islands
New Zealand Moeraki Katiki Point
New Zealand Yates Point
New Zealand Taiaroa Head
New Zealand Canterbury (offshore)
New Zealand North Otago (offshore)
New Zealand Dunedin Coast (offshore)
New Zealand South Otago (offshore)
New Zealand Rakiura (offshore)
New Zealand Auckland Islands 2 (near-shore)
New Zealand Campbell Islands (nearshore)
New Zealand Southern South Island (offshore)

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Forest Subantarctic major breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major resident
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major resident
Shrubland Subantarctic major resident
Shrubland Temperate major breeding
Altitude 0 - 75 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Canis familiaris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Mustela erminea Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Mustela furo Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Plasmodium relictum Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Sus domesticus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Phocarctos hookeri Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic species/disease of unknown origin - Corynebacterium amycolatum Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic species/disease of unknown origin - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Megadyptes antipodes. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/08/2022.