VU
Yellow-breasted Pipit Hemimacronyx chloris



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Hemimacronyx chloris (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) was previously placed in the genus Anthus following Dowsett & Forbes-Watson (1993); Sibley & Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A3c; C2a(i); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Vulnerable A3c; C2a(i); D1
2018 Vulnerable A3c; C2a(i); D1
2016 Vulnerable A3c; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v); D1
2012 Vulnerable A3c;B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
2008 Vulnerable A3c; B1a+b(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C1
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass 25 g
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 163,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 424-1210 medium estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing medium inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -

Population justification: Barnes (2000) estimated the population to be 2,500-6,500 individuals, roughly equivalent to 1,700-4,300 mature individuals. In view of substantial range reductions since Barnes's assessment, and assuming concomitant population declines, Little (2015) used a conservative estimate of a 20% population decrease, estimating the population at 2,000-4,800 individuals. Estimates based on extensive field work to determine the summer breeding range of this species, and using species range figures and average home range sizes, have resulted in population estimates of 607-1,730 individuals, approximately equating to 424-1,210 mature individuals (Pietersen et al. 2018).

Trend justification: The species's population is inferred to be declining due to ongoing loss and degradation of its grassland habitat (Pietersen et al. 2018). Habitat loss through rangeland degradation and conversion to agriculture is ongoing (Pietersen et al. 2018). Survey work does suggest, though, that the population may be stable in some local patches (R. Colyn in litt. 2017), so past declines are tentatively suspected to be moderately rapid. The rate of decline is expected to increase in the next ten years, with climate change potentially impacting 90% of the species's range by 2050 (R. Colyn in litt. 2017).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Lesotho N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Lesotho Sehlabathebe National Park
South Africa Steenkampsberg
South Africa Grasslands
South Africa Sterkfontein/Merinodal
South Africa Voordeel Conservancy
South Africa Alexpan
South Africa Golden Gate Highlands National Park
South Africa Maloti Drakensberg Park
South Africa Umgeni Vlei Nature Reserve
South Africa Matatiele Nature Reserve
South Africa Ntsikeni Wetland reserve
South Africa KwaZulu-Natal Mistbelt Grasslands
South Africa Queenstown highlands
South Africa Indwe - Cala - Ngcobo - Elliot
South Africa Northern Eastern Cape
South Africa Southern Drakensberg foothills
South Africa Northern Drakensberg foothills
South Africa Mistbelt grasslands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land marginal resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude major breeding
Savanna Dry suitable non-breeding
Altitude 1400 - 2400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Very Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Scewed sex ratios, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Trend Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Hemimacronyx chloris. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2022.