Yellow-breasted Bunting Emberiza aureola
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Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2acd+3cd+4acd A2acd+3cd+4acd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered A2acd+3cd+4acd
2013 Endangered A2acd+3cd+4acd
2012 Vulnerable A2acd+3cd+4acd
2008 Vulnerable A2a,c,d; A3c,d; A4a,c,d
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass 19.60000038 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 21,800,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 7,390,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium estimated 0
Population trend Decreasing poor estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.6 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population was estimated to number 20,000-100,000 breeding pairs, equating to 60,000-300,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe, at least formerly, formed 25-49% of the global range. The European population is now estimated to number just 120-600 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). National population estimates include: c.100-100,000 breeding pairs and c.50-10,000 individuals on migration in China; <c.100,000 breeding pairs and <c.1,000 individuals on migration in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: There is widespread evidence from surveys and anecdotal observations of local declines and range contractions. Based on this information, a very rapid decline is suspected. The European population is estimated to be decreasing by 80% or more in 10.8 years (three generations) and by 25% or more in 3.6 years (one generation) (BirdLife International 2015). Across the range of the species it is estimated to have declined by 84.3-94.7% between 1980 and 2013 (Kamp et al. 2015). This would represent a 45.4-61.8% decline over 3 generations (10.8 years). However, declines are thought to have been very slow initially, and have increased latterly (see Kamp et al. 2015). Therefore, the rate of decline is placed in the range of 50-79%.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Belarus V Extant
Belgium V Extant
Brunei V Extant
Cambodia N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Cyprus V Extant
Czech Republic V Extant
Denmark V Extant
Egypt V Extant
Estonia V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes
France V Extant
Germany V Extant
Greece V Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of V Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel V Extant
Italy V Extant
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan V Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes
Latvia V Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands V Extant
North Korea N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Philippines V Extant
Poland V Extant
Portugal V Extant
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia V Extant Yes
Singapore N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
Spain V Extant
Sweden V Extant
Syria V Extant Yes
Taiwan (China) N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Turkey V Extant
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
USA V Extant
Vietnam N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Japan Kiritappu marsh, Biwase bay
Mongolia Gorkhi-Terelj National Park
Mongolia Khan Khentii Strictly Protected Area
Mongolia Khokh Serkhiin Nuruu
Nepal Chitwan National Park
Nepal Farmlands in Lumbini area
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage
Nepal Langtang National Park
Nepal Nawalparasi forests
Nepal Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve
Russia (Asian) Aginskiye lakes
Russia (Asian) Bain-Tsaganskiye lakes
Russia (Asian) Barluksko-Sayanskaya floodplain of Oka river and Kuitunskaya foreststeppe
Russia (Asian) Middle Onon
Russia (Asian) Perovo lake
Russia (Asian) Sayanski canyon of the Enisey river
Russia (Central Asian) Baturino-Simansky area
Russia (Central Asian) Bobrovsko-Rasskazikhinskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy and Maly Akh lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Dikoye and Epanchino lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of the Tuy river
Russia (Central Asian) Kataiginskiye bogs
Russia (Central Asian) Kileinoye bog
Russia (Central Asian) Pershinsko-Manatkinsky area
Russia (Central Asian) Seketovo, Rakhtovo and Artevo lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Sibirskaya anabranch (Irtysh flood-plain)
Russia (Central Asian) Zapovednik "Denezhkin Kamen'"
Russia (European) Pinezhski meadow

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Boreal suitable breeding
Shrubland Boreal suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Emberiza aureola. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2017.