LC
Yellow-billed Kite Milvus aegyptius



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Milvus aegyptius (Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International 2020) has been split from Black Kite Milvus migrans (del Hoyo et al. 2014)

Yellow-billed Kite Milvus aegyptius (with subspecies parasitus) differs from M. migrans by its
·       Yellow vs black bill (3);
·       Dark vs pale iris in adult state (2);
·       Head and nape concolorous with upper body vs pale grey streaked black, contrasting with dark brown mantle (2);
·       Finer black streaking below (ns[2])
·       Wing (from BWP2) male 423 (7.6; n9) vs 447 (10.5; n15), effect size 2.62 (2).

Some Arabian birds (treated as arabicus in some places but synonymised with aegyptius in the Checklist) show some features of migrans (Forsman 2016).

Taxonomic source(s)
Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International. 2020. Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International digital checklist of the birds of the world. Version 5. Available at: http://datazone.birdlife.org/userfiles/file/Species/Taxonomy/HBW-BirdLife_Checklist_v5_Dec20.zip.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Least Concern
2020 Least Concern
2016 Not Recognised
2012 Not Recognised
2010 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 116,000,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 136,000,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor 0
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9.3 - - -

Population justification: There are no estimates of the global population size of the species. Parker (2005) estimated 1,000 birds to be present, presumably breeding in central Mozambique. The abundance of the species in much of sub-Saharan Africa indicates that the population is likely to be very large. In the Western Cape a rapid increase has been recorded between the 1950s and 1960s and 1997-1998 (Herremans and Herremans-Tonnoeyr 2001), but in other parts of the range a rapid reduction in the numbers detected during driven transects has been reported (Thiollay 2007; Garbett et al. 2018). While there is little solid data, it is suspected that the population is slowly declining.

Trend justification: Despite probably being the commonest large raptor in Africa the population is suspected to have declined, most likely due to poisoning, shooting, pollution of water and over-use of pesticides. Thiollay (2007) reported declines in observations from driven transects of 70% between 1969-73 and 2000-2004. In Botswana, a partial repeat in 2015 of road transects carried out in 2000 returned a non-significant decline of 28% for Yellow-billed Kite (Garbett et al. 2018). However, in the Western Cape, a dramatic increase was recorded from similar paired road transect surveys comparing those driven in the 1950s and 1960s to repeats in 1997-98 (Herremans and Herremans-Tonnoeyr 2001). Overall, a slow population reduction is suspected.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Angola N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant Yes
Burundi N Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant Yes
Central African Republic N Extant Yes
Chad N Extant Yes
Comoros N Extant Yes
Congo N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Equatorial Guinea N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Gabon N Extant Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Israel V Extant
Kenya N Extant Yes
Lesotho N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant Yes
Madagascar N Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant Yes
Mali N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Mayotte (to France) N Extant Yes
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant
Rwanda N Extant Yes
São Tomé e Príncipe N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant
Senegal N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli
Mauritania Lac de Mâl

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Desert Hot suitable breeding
Desert Hot suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Savanna Dry suitable breeding
Savanna Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Milvus aegyptius. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/12/2022.