Yellow-billed Chough Pyrrhocorax graculus


Taxonomic note

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 21,300,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1000000-2599999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.3 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 108,000-253,000 pairs, which equates to 215,000-507,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.20% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 1,075,000-2,535,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. The European population size is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus V Extant Yes
Czechia V Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Hungary V Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant Yes
Portugal V Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia V Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Armenia Pombak mountain chain
Azerbaijan Lake Gey Gel
Azerbaijan Mount Bazar-Duzu
Azerbaijan Mount Giamysh
Azerbaijan Mount Shahdag
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Rila
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Greece Mount Gkiona
Greece Mount Olympos
Greece Mount Parnassos
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Tymfi (Gkamila) and Smolikas mountains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Oshtrankuh Protected Area
Iraq Peramagroon Mountain
Italy Abruzzo National Park
Italy Gran Sasso and Laga mountains
Italy Maiella, Pizzi and Frentani mountains
Kazakhstan Aksu-Dzhabagly State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Almaty State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Assy Plateau
Kazakhstan Big Almaty Gorge
Kazakhstan Paradise Valley mountain plateau
Kyrgyzstan Eastern Alai
Kyrgyzstan Gorge Tash-Rabat
Nepal Annapurna Conservation Area
Nepal Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve
Nepal Kanchenjungha Conservation Area
Nepal Langtang National Park
Nepal Makalu Barun National Park
Nepal Rara National Park
Nepal Sagarmatha National Park
Nepal Shey-Phoksundo National Park
North Macedonia Jakupica Mountain
North Macedonia River Radika catchment
North Macedonia Shar Planina Mountain
Russia (Central Asian) Dzhulukul' depression
Russia (Central Asian) Kurkure mountain
Russia (Central Asian) Shapshal ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Talduair mountain
Russia (European) Alaniya National Park
Russia (European) Bazarduyzi and Shalbuzdag alpine mountains
Russia (European) Bolchoi Tkhach mountain
Russia (European) Kabardino-Balkarski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Kezenoi-Am lake
Russia (European) Samurski ridge
Russia (European) Sochinsky National Park
Russia (European) Sources of Kuna and Shisha rivers
Russia (European) Targimskaya intermountain
Russia (European) Tlyaratinski reserve
Serbia Prokletije
Serbia Sara mountain
Serbia Suva mountain
Slovenia Grintovci
Slovenia Julijci
Slovenia Karavanke
Spain Babia-Somiedo
Spain Ordesa-Bielsa
Spain Picos de Europa mountain range
Spain Posets-Maladeta
Spain San Mauricio-Bohí-Beret
Switzerland Aletsch region
Switzerland Augstmatthorn
Switzerland Bregaglia valley
Switzerland Central Valais between Sierre and Visp
Switzerland Heinzenberg mountain and surrounding valleys
Switzerland Lower Engadine and Swiss National Park
Switzerland Maggia valley
Switzerland Piora - Dötra
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Gurnigel
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Pays d'Enhaut
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Schwyz
Switzerland Simplon region
Switzerland Upper Toggenburg and Säntis
Switzerland Valley of Zermatt
Tajikistan Aktash massif
Tajikistan Bulunkul and Yashilkul lakes and mountains
Tajikistan Dashtidjum
Tajikistan Drumkul Lake
Tajikistan Dzhavshangoz
Tajikistan Ishkashim
Tajikistan Iskanderkul lake and mountains
Tajikistan Karakul lake and mountains
Tajikistan Kondara Gorge
Tajikistan Kulikalon Lakes
Tajikistan Rangkul valley (Rangkul & Shorkul Lakes)
Tajikistan Zorkul Nature Reserve (Lake Victoria)
Turkey Ağrı Mount
Turkey Aladağlar
Turkey Bey Mountains
Turkey Bolkar Mountains
Turkey Buzul and İkiyaka Mountains
Turkey Eastern Black Sea Mountains
Turkey Girdev Lake and Akdağlar
Turkey Munzur Mountains
Uzbekistan Gissar State Nature Reserve
Uzbekistan Oygaing River Valley
Uzbekistan Pulatkhan Gorge
Uzbekistan Tereklisay section of the Chatkal Mountains Biosphere Reserve

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable resident
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major resident
Altitude 1260 - 5000 m Occasional altitudinal limits 600 - 8235 m

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Pyrrhocorax graculus. Downloaded from on 16/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 16/11/2019.