Yellow-billed Chough Pyrrhocorax graculus


Taxonomic note

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency does not normally occur in forest
Land-mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 21,300,000
Severely fragmented? no -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Number of mature individuals 1000000-2599999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend stable suspected -
Generation length (years) 10.3 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 108,000-253,000 pairs, which equates to 215,000-507,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.20% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 1,075,000-2,535,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. The European population size is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan extant native yes
Albania extant native yes
Andorra extant native yes
Armenia extant native yes
Austria extant native yes
Azerbaijan extant native yes
Belgium extant vagrant yes
Bhutan extant native yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina extant native yes
Bulgaria extant native yes
China (mainland) extant native yes
Croatia extant native yes
Cyprus extant vagrant yes
Czechia extant vagrant yes
France extant native yes
Georgia extant native yes
Germany extant native yes
Gibraltar (to UK) extant vagrant yes
Greece extant native yes
Hungary extant vagrant yes
India extant native yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant native yes
Iraq extant native yes
Israel extant native yes
Italy extant native yes
Kazakhstan extant native yes
Kyrgyzstan extant native yes
Lebanon extant native yes
Liechtenstein extant native yes
Montenegro extant native yes
Morocco extant native yes
Nepal extant native yes
North Macedonia extant native yes
Pakistan extant native yes
Poland extant vagrant yes
Portugal extant vagrant yes
Russia extant native yes yes
Russia (Asian) extant native yes
Russia (Central Asian) extant native yes
Russia (European) extant native yes
Serbia extant native yes
Slovakia extant vagrant yes
Slovenia extant native yes
Spain extant native yes
Switzerland extant native yes
Syria extant native yes
Tajikistan extant native yes
Türkiye extant native yes
Turkmenistan extant native yes
Uzbekistan extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Lake Gey Gel
Azerbaijan Mount Bazar-Duzu
Azerbaijan Mount Giamysh
Greece Mount Parnassos
Greece Mount Gkiona
Greece Tymfi (Gkamila) and Smolikas mountains
Greece Mount Olympos
Greece Mount Taygetos
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Gurnigel
Switzerland Upper Toggenburg and Säntis
Switzerland Central Valais between Sierre and Visp
Switzerland Valley of Zermatt
Switzerland Aletsch region
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Pays d'Enhaut
Switzerland Heinzenberg mountain and surrounding valleys
Switzerland Lower Engadine and Swiss National Park
Switzerland Simplon region
Switzerland Maggia valley
Switzerland Piora - Dötra
Switzerland Bregaglia valley
Switzerland Augstmatthorn
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Schwyz
Azerbaijan Mount Shahdag
Türkiye Bolkar Mountains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Oshtrankuh Protected Area
Russia (European) Samurski ridge
Russia (European) Kabardino-Balkarski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Alaniya National Park
Kazakhstan Aksu-Dzhabagly State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Big Almaty Gorge
Russia (Central Asian) Kurkure mountain
Russia (Central Asian) Dzhulukul' depression
Russia (Central Asian) Shapshal ridge
North Macedonia River Radika catchment
North Macedonia Jakupica Mountain
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Bulgaria Rila
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Kazakhstan Assy Plateau
Tajikistan Bulunkul and Yashilkul lakes and mountains
Tajikistan Zorkul Nature Reserve (Lake Victoria)
Tajikistan Karakul lake and mountains
Tajikistan Rangkul valley (Rangkul & Shorkul Lakes)
Tajikistan Dzhavshangoz
Tajikistan Kondara Gorge
Tajikistan Iskanderkul lake and mountains
Tajikistan Drumkul Lake
Kazakhstan Almaty State Nature Reserve
Tajikistan Aktash massif
Tajikistan Kulikalon Lakes
Tajikistan Ishkashim
Tajikistan Dashtidjum
Russia (European) Bolchoi Tkhach mountain
Russia (European) Sources of Kuna and Shisha rivers
Russia (European) Bazarduyzi and Shalbuzdag alpine mountains
Uzbekistan Tereklisay section of the Chatkal Mountains Biosphere Reserve
Uzbekistan Pulatkhan Gorge
Uzbekistan Oygaing River Valley
Kazakhstan Paradise Valley mountain plateau
Russia (European) Kezenoi-Am lake
Russia (European) Tlyaratinski reserve
Russia (European) Targimskaya intermountain
Uzbekistan Gissar State Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Sochinsky National Park
Russia (Central Asian) Talduair mountain
Türkiye Girdev Lake and Akdağlar
Türkiye Bey Mountains
Türkiye Aladağlar
Türkiye Munzur Mountains
Türkiye Buzul and İkiyaka Mountains
Italy Maiella, Pizzi and Frentani mountains
Italy Abruzzo National Park
Italy Gran Sasso and Laga mountains
Türkiye Ağrı Mount
Türkiye Eastern Black Sea Mountains
North Macedonia Shar Planina Mountain
Kyrgyzstan Gorge Tash-Rabat
Kyrgyzstan Eastern Alai
Nepal Annapurna Conservation Area
Nepal Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve
Nepal Kanchenjungha Conservation Area
Nepal Langtang National Park
Nepal Makalu Barun National Park
Nepal Rara National Park
Nepal Sagarmatha National Park
Nepal Shey-Phoksundo National Park
Slovenia Grintovci
Slovenia Julijci
Slovenia Karavanke
Spain Babia-Somiedo
Spain Picos de Europa mountain range
Spain Ordesa-Bielsa
Spain Posets-Maladeta
Spain San Mauricio-Bohí-Beret
Iraq Peramagroon Mountain
Armenia Pombak mountain chain
Serbia Prokletije
Serbia Suva mountain
Serbia Sara mountain

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable resident
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major resident
Altitude 1260 - 5000 m Occasional altitudinal limits 600 - 8235 m

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Pyrrhocorax graculus. Downloaded from on 22/09/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 22/09/2023.