Yellow-billed Chough Pyrrhocorax graculus


Taxonomic note

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 21,300,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1000000-2599999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.3 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 108,000-253,000 pairs, which equates to 215,000-507,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.20% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 1,075,000-2,535,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. The European population size is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus V Extant Yes
Czechia V Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Hungary V Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant Yes
Portugal V Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia V Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
North Macedonia Shar Planina Mountain
Azerbaijan Lake Gey Gel
Azerbaijan Mount Bazar-Duzu
Azerbaijan Mount Giamysh
Andorra Pirineo de Andorra
Slovenia Julijci
Greece Mount Parnassos
Greece Lefka Ori mountains, Crete
Greece Mount Asterousia (Kofinas), Crete
Greece Mount Dikti, Crete
Greece Mount Gkiona
Greece Mount Vardousia
Greece Tymfi (Gkamila) and Smolikas mountains
Greece Athamanika mountains (Tzoumerka)
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Mountains of central Evvoia
Greece Agrafa mountains
Greece Artemisio and Lyrkeio mountains
Greece Mount Chelmos (Aroania)
Greece Mount Erymanthos
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Paramythia mountains
Greece Tsamanta, Filiata, Farmakovouni and Megali Rachi mountains
Greece Mount Olympos
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinountas gorge
Russia (European) Bazarduyzi and Shalbuzdag alpine mountains
Russia (European) Caucasus Biosphere Reserve
Spain San Mauricio-Bohí-Beret
Spain Belagua-Ansó-Hecho
Spain La Losa-Orduña (Salvada mountain range)
Spain Picos de Europa mountain range
Spain Alt Pallars
Spain Cerdaña
Spain Boumort mountains
Spain Cadí mountains
Spain Montsech and Montgai mountains
Spain Riaño
Spain Fuentes Carrionas
Spain Upper Ebro and Rudrón canyons
Spain Oña and Tesla mountain ranges
Spain Babia-Somiedo
Spain Central ranges of the Cantabric mountains
Spain Collarada-Telera
Spain Panticosa-Vignemale-Tendeñera
Spain Ordesa-Bielsa
Spain Gistaín-Cotiella
Spain Posets-Maladeta
Spain Oturia-Canciás
France Haute Cize : Pic d'Errozate et Forêt d'Orion
France Vallée d'Asco
France Vallée de la Restonica
France Vallée du Verghello
France Massif du Canigou-Carança
France Massif du Madres et Mont Coronat
France Parc National des Ecrins
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Grigne
Italy Lessini and Pasubio mountains
Italy Lagorai mountains
Italy Tarvisio Forest
Italy Carniche Alps
Italy Gran Sasso d'Italia
Italy Sirente, Velino and Duchessa mountains
Italy Alpi Apuane
Italy Ligurian Alps
Italy Maritime Alps
Italy Susa and Chisone valleys
Italy Adamello-Brenta
Italy Stelvio National Park
Italy Orobie Alps and pre-Alps
Italy Sibillini mountains
Italy Belluno Dolomites
Italy Camonica valley
Italy Antigorio and Formazza valleys
Italy Anzasca and Antrona valleys
Italy Val Grande
Italy Mont Blanc (Italian side)
Italy Monte Rosa (Valle d'Aosta side)
Italy Dolomites
Georgia Eastern Caucasus
Serbia Prokletije
Serbia Sara mountain
Serbia Jerma
Serbia Suva mountain
Serbia Stara mountains
Serbia Sicevo gorge
Serbia Zlot gorge--Dubasnica
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Austria Northern Kalkalpen
Austria Hohe Tauern National Park
Austria Niedere Tauern
Austria Nockberge National Park
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Gurnigel
Switzerland Upper Toggenburg and Säntis
Switzerland Central Valais between Sierre and Visp
Switzerland Valley of Zermatt
Switzerland Aletsch region
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Pays d'Enhaut
Switzerland Heinzenberg mountain and surrounding valleys
Switzerland Lower Engadine and Swiss National Park
Switzerland Simplon region
Switzerland Maggia valley
Switzerland Piora - Dötra
Switzerland Bregaglia valley
Switzerland Augstmatthorn
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Schwyz
Germany Berchtesgaden National Park
Montenegro Durmitor
Azerbaijan Mount Shahdag
Montenegro Biogradska woods
Italy Gran Sasso and Laga mountains
Turkey Bolkar Mountains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Oshtrankuh Protected Area
Russia (European) Samurski ridge
Russia (European) Kabardino-Balkarski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Alaniya National Park
Russia (Central Asian) Talduair mountain
Bulgaria Ponor
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan
Bulgaria Sredna Gora
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Bulgaria Osogovo Mountain
France Parc National du Mercantour
France Hauts Plateaux du Vercors et Forêt des Coulmes
France Parc National de la Vanoise
Kazakhstan Aksu-Dzhabagly State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Big Almaty Gorge
Russia (Central Asian) Kurkure mountain
Russia (Central Asian) Dzhulukul' depression
Russia (Central Asian) Shapshal ridge
North Macedonia River Radika catchment
North Macedonia Jakupica Mountain
Iran, Islamic Republic of Alborz-e Markazi Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Parvar Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Western Zagros north of Nowsud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khabr-va-Rouchoon Wildlife Refuge
Iraq Amedi and Sulav
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Bulgaria Rila
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Kazakhstan Assy Plateau
Lebanon Rim - Sannine Mountain
Austria Karwendel
Tajikistan Bulunkul and Yashilkul lakes and mountains
Tajikistan Zorkul Nature Reserve (Lake Victoria)
Tajikistan Karakul lake and mountains
Tajikistan Rangkul valley (Rangkul & Shorkul Lakes)
Tajikistan Dzhavshangoz
Tajikistan Kondara Gorge
Tajikistan Iskanderkul lake and mountains
Tajikistan Drumkul Lake
Kazakhstan Almaty State Nature Reserve
Tajikistan Aktash massif
Tajikistan Kulikalon Lakes
Tajikistan Ishkashim
Tajikistan Dashtidjum
Russia (European) Bolchoi Tkhach mountain
Russia (European) Sources of Kuna and Shisha rivers
Uzbekistan Tereklisay section of the Chatkal Mountains Biosphere Reserve
Uzbekistan Pulatkhan Gorge
Uzbekistan Oygaing River Valley
Kazakhstan Paradise Valley mountain plateau
Russia (European) Kezenoi-Am lake
Russia (European) Tlyaratinski reserve
Russia (European) Targimskaya intermountain
Uzbekistan Gissar State Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Sochinsky National Park
Afghanistan Big Pamir
Turkey Girdev Lake and Akdağlar
Turkey Bey Mountains
Turkey Aladağlar
Turkey Munzur Mountains
Turkey Buzul and İkiyaka Mountains
Italy Maiella, Pizzi and Frentani mountains
Italy Abruzzo National Park
Turkey Ağrı Mount
Turkey Eastern Black Sea Mountains
Kyrgyzstan Gorge Tash-Rabat
Kyrgyzstan Eastern Alai
Nepal Annapurna Conservation Area
Nepal Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve
Nepal Kanchenjungha Conservation Area
Nepal Langtang National Park
Nepal Makalu Barun National Park
Nepal Rara National Park
Nepal Sagarmatha National Park
Nepal Shey-Phoksundo National Park
Slovenia Grintovci
Slovenia Karavanke
Armenia Gndasar
Iraq Peramagroon Mountain
Armenia Pombak mountain chain
Serbia Pester

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable resident
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major resident
Altitude 1260 - 5000 m Occasional altitudinal limits 600 - 8235 m

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Pyrrhocorax graculus. Downloaded from on 14/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 14/08/2022.