VU
Yelkouan Shearwater Puffinus yelkouan



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A4bcde

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Vulnerable A4bcde
2016 Vulnerable A4bcde
2015 Vulnerable A4bcde
2012 Vulnerable A4bcde
2010 Near Threatened A4b,c,d,e
2008 Near Threatened A4b,c,d,e
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 5,480,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium estimated 2011
Population trend Decreasing poor estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 18 - - -

Population justification: Figures point to a total of 15,337-30,519 pairs, roughly equating to 46,000-92,000 individuals, based on a population assessment covering the species's entire range (Derhé 2012). However, this number is at odds with preliminary counts conducted in early February when c. 75,000-90,000 individuals have been recorded migrating through the Bosporus [J. Tavares and D. Sahin. in litt. 2012, D. Sahin in litt. 2015]), at a time when most breeders are already around their colonies in Malta, France, and Italy. More surveys are urgently needed to confirm breeding population sizes, particularly in the Aegean Sea and in Turkey.

Trend justification: Extremely low breeding success has been reported at several important colonies, particularly in Italy (Baccetti et al. 2009), as well as adult survival probabilities (across the western Mediterranean) that are currently too low to maintain stable populations (Oppel et al. 2011). There is evidence of both recent and historical colony extinctions, with eleven colonies having been reported extinct in the last 60 years (Bourgeois and Vidal 2008, N. Baccetti in litt. 2011, Cadiou 2015). The trends of populations in Albania, Algeria, Bulgaria, Croatia, France, Greece,Turkey and Tunisia are currently unknown. Declines are suspected in Croatia (for at least one colony [I. Budinski in litt. 2011]) and Greece (based on long-term trends [J. Fric in litt. 2011]) however the Greek population was reported as stable according to the European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015).

It has been reported that the species is declining in Italy by 10-50% over 13 years (N. Baccetti in litt. 2011), in France by 6% per year (Oppel et al. 2011) and in Malta by 0-15% over nine years (Borg and Sultana 2002, Raine et al. 2009, Sultana et al. 2011). In total, these three countries represent around three-quarters of the known global population. By combining data for these three countries it is predicted that, if the species continues to decline at the current reported rate, the global breeding population will decrease by more than 30% in the next 54 years, i.e. three generations (Derhé 2012). These declines are retained despite increases reported for Italy and Malta in the 2015 European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015). The reported increases may be either dependent on the trend at one colony or may be a result of better knowledge rather than real increases. Consultation with experts in the relevant countries suggests that overall the negative trends should be retained for the current assessment. However should new information suggest that these populations are experiencing genuine increases the global trend direction should be amended.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Austria V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant
Malta N Extant Yes
Monaco U Extant
Montenegro U Extant
Morocco N Extant
North Macedonia V Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia V Extant
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Ikaria island
Greece Amorgos island
Greece Patmos island and surrounding islets
Greece Echinades, Kalamos and Atokos islands
Greece Kinaros and Levitha islands and surrounding islets
Greece Kalymnos, Telendos, Kalolimnos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Psili Ammos lagoon, Samos
Greece Mount Kochylas, Skyros
Greece Western Skyros and islets
Greece Agios Efstratios island
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Alyki Kitrous lagoon
Greece Symi island and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Mount Kerkis, Samos
Greece Strofades islets
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Kasos island and surrounding islets
Greece Lavreotiki peninsula and Patroklos islet
Greece Western Milos, Antimilos and Polyaigos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Gramvousa peninsula and Gramvouses and Pontikonisi islets, Crete
Greece Gavdos and Gavdopoula islands, Crete
Spain Mouth of the river Guadalhorce
Spain Costa da Morte
Italy Maddalena archipelago and Cape Ferro
Italy Asinara island, Piana island and Stintino peninsula
Italy Cape Caccia and Conte port
Italy Coast from Palo to Santa Marinella
Italy Uccellina mountains, Trappola marshes and Ombrone mouth
Italy Argentario
Italy Capes and islands of south-eastern Sardinia
Georgia Kolkheti
France Iles Marseillaises: Maire, Jarron, Jarre, Riou, Calseraigne, Congloue et Pomègues
France Iles Finocchiarola et côte de Tamarone à Centuri
Greece Islets of western Limnos and cape Mourtzeflos
Greece Diapontia islands (Othonoi, Ereikousa, Mathraki) and surrounding islets
Turkey Bosphorus
Turkey Karaburun and İldir Strait Islands
Turkey Marmara Islands
Turkey Besadalar
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Galata
France Détroit de Bonifaccio et Iles Lavezzi
France Iles Cerbicale
France Iles d'Hyères
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Bakarlaka
Bulgaria Ropotamo Complex
Bulgaria Strandzha
Croatia Lastovo Archipelago
Italy Tremiti islands
Italy Eolie islands
Italy Tuscan Archipelago
Malta Xlendi Bay to Wardija Point Cliffs
Malta Ic-Cnus to Tal-Bardan Cliffs
Malta il-Kullana to ta' Gifen Cliffs
Malta West of il-Hagra s-Sewda to ix-Xaqqa Cliffs
Malta West of Wied ix-Xaqqa to Wied Maqbyl Cliffs
Malta Ta'Cenc cliffs
Malta Dwejra Bay to San Dimitri Point
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Black Sea
Malta Majjistral
Spain Mar del Empordà
Russia (European) Mediterranean and Black Sea 2 - Marine
Ukraine Mediterranean and Black Sea 3 - Marine
Turkey Mediterranean and Black Sea 1 - Marine
Greece Makronisos channel
Greece Gulf of Kavala and marine area of Thasos island
Greece Islands and islets of northern Dodecanese
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Rineia, Chtapodia and Tragonisi islets, Mykonos
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets
Greece South Evvoikos Gulf
Greece Mount Athos and surrounding marine area
Greece Mikres Kyklades and Amorgos marine area
Greece Western Lesvos marine area
Greece Kythira island
Malta Għawdex marine
Malta Lbiċ marine
Russia (European) Utrish Reserve and adjacent coastal waters
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Italy Costa Viola
Italy Peloritani mountains
Malta St Paul Islands
Malta Għawdex marine
Malta Tramuntana offshore
Malta Grigal offshore
Malta Lvant marine
Malta Xlokk offshore
Malta Nofsinhar offshore
Turkey Çanakkale Strait
Georgia Batumi
Turkey Tahtalı Mountains
Croatia Offshore Islands
Turkey Mahal Hills
Turkey Bodrum Peninsula
Turkey Kizildag Izmir
Turkey Ayvalık
Turkey Babakale - Asos Coast
Turkey Çiçek Islands
Turkey İstanbul Islands
Turkey Lesser Menderes Delta
Greece Samothraki island
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Thasos island and Xironisi islet
Greece Alyki Angelochoriou lagoon (Megalou Emvolou)
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Falkonera, Velopoula and Karavia islets
Greece Mikres Kyklades island complex
Greece Ios, Sikinos and Folegandros islands
Greece Tilos island and surrounding islets
Greece Karpathian sea islets
Lebanon Palm Islands Nature Reserve

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Competition, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Competition, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus rattus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Calonectris diomedea Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Competition
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Fuels - - - Non-trivial Recent
Fuels - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Puffinus yelkouan. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/10/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/10/2020.