VU
Wreathed Hornbill Rhyticeros undulatus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Rhyticeros undulatus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Aceros.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A3cd+4cd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Vulnerable A3cd+4cd
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 7,020,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals unknown not applicable not applicable 0
Population trend Decreasing inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-39 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-39 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 19 - - -

Population justification: The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is reported to be locally common in several areas across its wide range (del Hoyo et al. 2001).

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction and fragmentation (del Hoyo et al. 2001). An analysis of deforestation between 2000 and 2012 estimated forest loss within the species's range at 32.8% over three generations (57 years) (Tracewski et al. 2016). The rate of population decline is suspected to be greater than this because the species is intolerant of degraded and secondary habitat, but requires large tracts of undisturbed forest. In addition, it is also threatened by hunting. Thus, the rate of decline is precautionarily placed in the band 30-49% over three generations. Since this species has a long generation length, with three generations stretching over 57 years, there is insufficient evidence to calculate the magnitude of reduction over the past three generations. Assuming the recent rate of decline remains constant, the species is projected to decline by 30-49% over the next three generations.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Brunei N Extant Yes
Cambodia N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 0 - 2560 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Medicine Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Medicine - human & veterinary - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Rhyticeros undulatus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/07/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/07/2019.