NT
Woodpecker Finch Geospiza pallida



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Geospiza pallida (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) was previously placed in the genus Camarhynchus and listed as C. pallidus following SACC (2005 & updates); Sibley & Monroe (1990, 1993); Stotz et al. (1996).

 

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Near Threatened A2abce+4abce
2016 Vulnerable A2bc+3bc+4bc; B1ab(v)
2015 Vulnerable A2bc+3bc+4bc; B1ab(v)
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 26,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 8,000
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 110000-270000 medium inferred 2021
Population trend Decreasing inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations 3 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -

Population justification: The species is locally common and widespread (Jaramillo et al. 2020). In recent surveys, the population was estimated at 2,693 pairs (1,583-5,091) on Santiago, at 31,500 pairs (26,783-64,432) on Isabela, at 28,914 pairs (18,350-46,807) on Santa Cruz and at 10,121 pairs (8,237-16,781) on San Cristóbal (Galápagos Landbird Project unpubl. data per M. Dvorak and B. Fessl in litt. 2021). The population on Fernandina is likely below 1,000 pairs (Galápagos Landbird Project unpubl. data per M. Dvorak and B. Fessl in litt. 2021). The total population is therefore estimated at roughly 75,000 pairs, equating to 150,000 mature individuals, with a minimum of roughly 55,000 pairs (110,000 mature individuals) and a maximum of roughly 135,000 pairs (270,000 mature individuals).
The species is thought to form three subspecies (Jaramillo et al. 2020): Subspecies striatipecta occurs in San Cristóbal (10,121 pairs, equating to 20,242 mature individuals), subspecies producta in Fernandina and Isabela (32,500 pairs or 65,000 mature individuals) and subspecies pallida on Santiago, Santa Cruz and potentially Santa Fé and Pinzón (31,607 pairs or 63,214 mature individuals).

Trend justification: A study using quantitative census data to describe the distribution and abundance of the land birds of Santa Cruz revealed that the species had declined significantly between 1997 and 2010, with declines of >65% in the dry zone, >20% in humid Scalesia forest and >50% in the agricultural zone of the island (Dvorak et al. 2012). No census data currently exists for the islands of Isabela and Santiago but given the level of habitat destruction and degradation by introduced herbivores on those islands (Henderson and Dawson 2009), similar declines are suspected. On San Cristóbal however, the species was found to be in a better state with no declines noted (Dvorak et al. 2019).
The species reaches highest densities in humid zones (Dvorak et al. 2019), where declines of >20% were observed over 14 years (Dvorak et al. 2012), which equates to a rate of decline of >15% over ten years. Accounting for faster declines of populations in the less frequented dry zones, the overall rate of decline is precautionarily inferred at 20-29% over ten years.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Ecuador N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Ecuador Tierras altas de Santiago
Ecuador Tierras altas de Santa Cruz
Ecuador Áreas costeras de Fernandina y del occidente de Isabela
Ecuador Tierras altas de Isabela
Ecuador Puerto Ayora
Ecuador Isla San Cristóbal

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1700 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Philornis downsi Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Avipoxvirus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Geospiza pallida. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/12/2022.