LC
Woodlark Lullula arborea



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass 26.89999962 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 16,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 10,700,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 4000000-8999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.8 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 1,890,000-3,890,000 pairs, which equates to 3,780,000-7,790,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.90% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 4,200,000-8,700,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: In Europe the overall trend from 1980 to 2013 showed a moderate increase (EBCC 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan V Extant
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant
Greece N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan V Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Monaco N Extant
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) V Extant
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
San Marino N Extant
Saudi Arabia V Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Austria Lösslandschaft and Wagram east of Krems
Austria Lower Kamp valley
Austria Thermenlinie
Austria Western Waldviertel
Belgium De Maten
Belgium Gebieden gelegen te Houthalen-Helchteren en Meeuwen-Gruitrode
Belgium Hamonterheide, Hageven, Buitenheide, Mariahof en Stamprooierbroek
Belgium Hautes Fagnes/Eifel
Belgium Mechelse Heide en de Vallei van de Ziepbeek
Belgium Sinémurienne
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Bulgaria Kresna Gorge
Bulgaria Ludogorie
Bulgaria Sredna Gora
Bulgaria Strandzha
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Croatia Gorski Kotar and Northern Lika
Croatia Krka and Surrounding Plateau
Croatia Mount Ucka and Cicarija
Croatia Mount Velebit
Croatia Ravni Kotari
Cyprus Adelphoi Forest - Papoutsa
Cyprus Atsas-Agios Theodoros Area
Cyprus Pafos Forest
Cyprus Troodos Forest
Cyprus Xylourikos Valley
Czechia Boletice
Czechia Bzenecka Doubrava-Straznicke Pomoravi
Czechia Ceskolipsko - Dokeské pískovce sandstones and wetlands
Czechia Sumava mountains (Bohemian forest)
Czechia Trebonsko (Trebon region)
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Põhja-Kõrvemaa
France Arrière Côte de Dijon et de Beaune
France Barois et Forêt de Clairvaux
France Bec de Crigne
France Chaîne des Alpilles
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Forêt de Haguenau
France Forêts du Perche
France Gorges de la Vis et cirque de Navacelles
France Gorges du Rieutord-Fage-Cagnasses
France Haut Val d'Allier
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Massif des Albères
France Massif du Petit Lubéron
France Minervois
France Montagne de la Serre
France Montagne Sainte-Victoire
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Plateau Ardennais
France Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire
France Vallée du Régino
Germany Aisch-Regnitz-Grund
Germany Altengrabower Heide
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Annaburger Heide
Germany Bienwald and Viehstrichwiesen
Germany Bliesgau
Germany Colblitz-Letzlinger Heide
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Döberitzer Heide
Germany Dune and aeolian sand area Dudenhofen, Babenhausen, Seligenstadt
Germany Dunes and sands of Mainz - Ingelheim
Germany Farmlands near Kusey (Altmark)
Germany Former August-Euler airfield
Germany Gohrischheide
Germany Haardtrand
Germany Heathlands of Lieberose-Staakow-Reicherskreuz
Germany Hohe Geest near Himbergen / Bad Bodenteich
Germany Hoher Fläming Görzke-Kranepuhl
Germany Hudewälder northeast of Haldensleben
Germany Klietzer Heide
Germany Lorsch forest and Vierheim heathland
Germany Lüneburger Heide
Germany Mehlinger Heide
Germany Military training area Baumholder
Germany Military training area Bergen-Hohne
Germany Military training area east and west of Jüterbog
Germany Military training area Hohenfels
Germany Military training area Munster-Nord
Germany Mittlere Schwäbische Alb with Albuch, Härtsfeld and Schmiechener See
Germany Mönchbruch of Mörfelden and Rüsselsheim and heath extensions (GG)
Germany Nossentiner-/Schwinzer Heide with Krakower Obersee and Plauer See
Germany Nürnberger Reichswald
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Pressel wooded heath and mire
Germany Recker Moor/ Düsterdieker Niederung/ Seester Feld
Germany Retzower Heide
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Sächsische Schweiz National Park
Germany Schönbuch with Spitzberg
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Schwalm-Nette-Platte and Grenzwald
Germany Sennelager training area
Germany South-eastern Alb and Upper Danube valley
Germany Southern Karlsruhe Hardt
Germany Uckermark lake region
Germany Ueckermünder Heide
Germany Upper and middle reaches of river Krückau with tributaries
Germany Vesser valley Biosphere Reserve
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Wahner Heide
Italy Abruzzo National Park
Italy Agri Valley
Italy Carso
Italy Gran Sasso and Laga mountains
Italy Maiella, Pizzi and Frentani mountains
Italy Sirente, Velino and Duchessa mountains
Lithuania Dzukija National Park
Lithuania Initial area of Aukstaitija NP
Lithuania Labanoras Regional Park
Lithuania Lithuanian part of the Curonian Spit
Lithuania Simonys & Ramuldava forest complex
Luxembourg Dudelange Haard
Luxembourg Esch/Alzette South-east
Luxembourg Mines of the region of Differdange
Netherlands Brabantse Wal
Netherlands Leenderbos, Groote Heide & De Plateaux
Netherlands Loonse and Drunense Duinen
Netherlands Maasduinen
Netherlands Veluwe
Netherlands Weerter- en Budelerbergen & Ringselven
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Biala Forest
Poland Forest at Gwda River
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Lower Silesia Forests
Poland Notec Forest
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Solska Forest
Poland Tuchola Forest
Portugal Serra de Monchique
Portugal Serra do Caldeirão
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi
Romania Almăjului Mountains - Locvei
Romania Dealurile Nordice ale Munţilor Făgăraş
Romania Dealurile Târnavelor - Valea Nirajului
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel
Romania Nerei gorge - Beuşniţa
Romania Piatra Şoimului - Scorţeni - Gârleni
Romania Podişul Hârtibaciului
Romania Trascău Mountains
Russia (European) Buzulukski forest
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Racheyski forest
Serbia Deliblatska pescara
Slovakia Cerová upland and Rimava valley
Slovakia Laborecka upland
Slovakia Polana
Slovakia Slanské hills
Slovakia Slovenský karst
Slovenia Banjšice plateau
Slovenia Goričko
Slovenia Karst
Slovenia Snežnik plateau and Pivka valley
Slovenia Vipavski rob
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Sweden Hanveden – Hemfosa
Ukraine Gorgany
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
United Kingdom Breckland
United Kingdom Cannock Chase
United Kingdom Dorset Heaths and Forests
United Kingdom Haldon Forest
United Kingdom Laughton Forest
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom New Forest
United Kingdom Sherwood Forest
United Kingdom Suffolk Sandlings
United Kingdom Thames Basin Heaths
United Kingdom Wealden Heaths

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Lullula arborea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/11/2019.