LC
Wood Thrush Hylocichla mustelina



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Least Concern
2016 Near Threatened A2a
2014 Near Threatened A2a
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 4,870,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 1,710,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 12000000 poor estimated 2019
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -

Population justification: The population is estimated to number 12,000,000 mature individuals (Partners in Flight 2019). It is described as common.

Trend justification: The species has been undergoing a large, significant decline in the past, with an average rate of 1.92% per year between 1970 and 2017 (Partners in Flight 2019, Evans et al. 2020). This amounts to an average decline of 18% over ten years. However, investigating short-term trends from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS; Pardieck et al. 2018), it seems that declines have slowed down in recent years: For the decade 2001-2011, declines amounted to 28%; but since then the rate of decline has continuously been below 20%. For the period 2002-2012, the species declined by 19%, and rates of decline have decreased since. To calculate the rate of population change for the past ten years, we can assess the trend for 2010-2017 and extrapolate this to 2020, which results in a rate of decline of 11% over the past ten years.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bahamas V Extant
Belize N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) V Extant
Canada N Extant Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) V Extant
Colombia V Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant Yes
Curaçao (to Netherlands) V Extant
Dominican Republic V Extant
El Salvador N Extant Yes Yes
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) V Extant
Guatemala N Extant Yes Yes
Haiti V Extant
Honduras N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland V Extant
Jamaica V Extant
Mexico N Extant Yes Yes
Nicaragua N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant Yes
Portugal V Extant
Puerto Rico (to USA) V Extant
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) V Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) V Extant
United Kingdom V Extant
USA N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Canada Dundas Valley and Dundas Marsh
Canada Norfolk Forest Complex

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Altitude 0 - 600 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Air-borne pollutants - Acid rain Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Hylocichla mustelina. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/10/2021.