LC
Wood Duck Aix sponsa



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 15,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 11,200,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 4600000 poor inferred 2019
Population trend Increasing inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.5 - - -

Population justification: The global population is inferred to number 4,600,000 mature individuals and is believed to be increasing overall (Partners in Flight 2019, Waterbird Population Estimates 2020).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Partners in Flight 2019; Wetlands International 2020).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bahamas N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cuba N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant
Iceland V Extant
Mexico N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal V Extant
Puerto Rico (to USA) V Extant
Spain V Extant
St Kitts and Nevis V Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) V Extant
USA N Extant Yes Yes Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Canada Marais de Saint-Timothée

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Temperate major non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 900 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Aix sponsa. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/06/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/06/2022.