LC
Willow Warbler Phylloscopus trochilus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 23,100,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 22,200,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 400000000-649999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.5 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 62,200,000-97,100,000 pairs, which equates to 124,000,000-194,000,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.30% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 413,000,000-647,000,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population in Russia has been estimated at < c.100,000 breeding pairs and < c.1,000 individuals on migration (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: In Europe, trends between 1980 and 2013 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (EBCC 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan U Extant
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant
Angola N Extant
Armenia N Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Botswana N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada V Extant
Cape Verde N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
Comoros V Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant
India V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan V Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho N Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Monaco N Extant
Montenegro N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
St Helena (to UK) V Extant
Sudan N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belarus Balota Jel'nia
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Portugal Paul de Madriz
Romania Padiş - Vlădeasa mountain
Sweden Holmöarna Archipelago
Poland Pisz forest
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece East Lakonia mountains
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Nisyros island and surrounding islets
Greece Chalki island and surrounding islets
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Agios Efstratios island
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Southern Mani, mount Sangias and cape Tainaro
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Samothraki island
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Ahmasjärvi lake
Finland Litokaira
Finland Valtavaara-Pyhävaara
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Närängänvaara-Virmajoki-Romevaara
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Syöte-Salmitunturi
Finland Juortanansalo
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Pöyrisvuoma mire protection area
Finland Lämsänaapa-Sakkala-aapa
Finland Joutsenaapa-Kaita-aapa
Finland Riisitunturi
Finland Luosto
Finland Kevo
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Chonovyny marsh
France Marais de Sacy
Italy Ponziane islands
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Northern Black Forest, west of the Murg
Germany Northern Black Forest, east of the Murg
Russia (Central Asian) Marsh southward of village Stepanovka near Okunevo Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Austria Styrian Enns valley
Slovenia Pohorje
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Germany Northern Black Forest
Luxembourg Esch/Alzette South-east
Slovenia River Drava
Slovenia River Mura
Kazakhstan Donyz-Tau cliff faces
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens major non-breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Savanna Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Phylloscopus trochilus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/06/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/06/2022.