Whooping Crane Grus americana


Archibald, G. 2009. A challenging year for Whooping Cranes. ICF Bugle 35(3): 1-2.

Archibald, G. W.; Meine, C. D. 1996. Gruidae (Cranes). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 60-89. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Baasch, D. M.; Farrell, P. D.; Pearse, A. T.; Brandt, D. A.; Caven, A. J.; Harner, M. J.; Wright, G. D.; Metzger, K. L. 2019. Diurnal habitat selection of migrating Whooping Crane in the Great Plains. Avian Conservation and Ecology 14(1).

Barzen, J. A.; Converse, S. J.; Adler, P. H.; Lacy, A.; Gray, E.; Gossens, A. 2018. Examination of multiple working hypotheses to address reproductive failure in reintroduced Whooping Cranes. The Condor: Ornithological Applications 120(3): 632-649.

Beilfuss, R. 2013. Water for Whoopers is water for all. ICF Bugle 39(2): 1-2.

Belaire, J. A.; Kreakie, B. J.; Keitt, T.; Minor, E. 2014. Predicting and Mapping Potential Whooping Crane Stopover Habitat to Guide Site Selection for Wind Energy Projects. Conserv. Biol. 28: 541-550.

Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Şekercioğlu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261.

Boyce, M.S.; Lele, S. R.; Johns, B.W. 2005. Whooping crane recruitment enhanced by egg removal. Biological Conservation 126: 395-401.

Butler, M. J.; Harrell, W. 2016. Whooping Crane Survey Results: Winter 2015–2016. Available at: https://www.fws.gov/uploadedFiles/Region_2/NWRS/Zone_1/Aransas-Matagorda_Island_Complex/Aransas/Sections/What_We_Do/Science/Whooping_Crane_Updates_2013/WHCR%20Update%20Winter%202015-2016.pdf.

Butler, M. J.; Metzger, K. L.; Harris, G. 2014. Whooping crane demographic responses to winter drought focus conservation strategies. Biol. Conserv. 179: 72-85.

Caven, A. J.; Malzahn, J.; Koupal, K. D.; Buckley, E. M. B.; Wiese, J. D.; Rasmussen, R.; Steenson, C. 2019. Adult Whooping Crane (Grus americana) consumption of juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) during the avian spring migration in the Central Platte River Valley, Nebraska, USA. Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist 11(1): 14-23.

Chavez-Ramirez, F. 2007. Sandhill crane staging and whooping Crane migratory stopover dynamics in response ro river management activities on the Central Platte River, Nebraska, USA. 31st Annual Meeting of the Waterbird Society, 30 October - 3 November 2007, Edifici Històric, Universitat de Barcelona, pp. 111.

Chu, M.; Stone, W.; McGowan, K. J.; Dhondt, A. A.; Hochachka, W. M.; Therrien, J. E. 2003. West Nile file. Birdscope 17: 10-11.

Condon, E.; Brooks, W. B.; Langenberg, J.; Lopez, D. 2018. Whooping crane shootings since 1967 (Chapter 23). In: French Jr., J. B.; Converse, S. J.; Austin, J. E. (ed.), Whooping Cranes: Biology and Conservation. Biodiversity of the World: Conservation from Genes to Landscapes., pp. 485-504. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.

Department of Wildlife and Fisheries State of Louisiana. 2017. Population Update. Available at: http://wlf.louisiana.gov/blog-post/population-update. (Accessed: 25/01/2017).

Dinets, V. 2016. Predation on amphibians and reptiles by reintroduced Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) in Louisiana. The American Midland Naturalist 175(1): 134-137.

Folk, M. J.; Dellinger, T. A.; Leone, E. H. 2013. Is Male-biased Collision Mortality of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) in Florida Associated with Flock Behavior? Waterbirds 36(2): 214-219.

Garland, J. and Peterson, D. 2009. Wild Whooping Crane Chick Hatches at Necedah National Wildlife Refuge. Available at: http://www.bringbackthecranes.org/newsroom/2009/nr21June2009.html. (Accessed: 29th March).

Glenn, T. G.; Stephan, W.; Braun, M. J. 1999. Effects of a population bottleneck on Whooping Crane mitochondrial DNA variation. Conservation Biology 13: 1097-1107.

Harrell, W.; Bidwell, M. 2015. Report on Whooping Crane Recovery Activities (2014 breeding season-2015 spring migration).

IUCN. 2020. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 December 2020).

Lewis, J. 1997. Alerting the birds. Endangered Species Bulletin 22: 22-23.

Lewis, J. C. 1995. Whooping Crane (Grus americana). In: Poole, A.; Gill, F. (ed.), The birds of North America, No. 153, pp. 1-28. The Academy of Natural Sciences, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Philadelphia, and Washington, DC.

Line, L. 1995. Flight school for cranes. Wildlife Conservation 98: 36-45.

MacKenzie, T. 2011. Second Whooping Crane Found Dead at Weiss Lake, Alabama. Available at: http://www.bringbackthecranes.org/newsroom/2011/nr18February2011.html. (Accessed: 29th March).

Meine, C. D. and Archibald, G. W. 1996. The cranes - status survey and conservation action plan. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, U.K.

Neri, H. 2020. A Characterization of the Diets of Wild and Reintroduced Whooping Cranes (Grus americana). Graduate School, Hood College.

Niemuth, N. D.; Ryba, A. J.; Pearse, A. T.; Kvas, S. M.; Brandt, D. A.; Wangler, B.; Austin, J. E.; Carlisle, M. J. 2018. Opportunistically collected data reveal habitat selection by migrating Whooping Cranes in the U.S. Northern Plains. The Condor 120(2): 343-356.

Pearse, A. T.; Brandt, D. A.; Hartup, B. K.; Bidwell, M. T. 2019. Mortality in Aransas-Wood Buffalo whooping cranes: Timing, location, and causes.

Pugesek, B. H.; Baldwin, M. J.; Stehn, T. 2013. The relationship of blue crab abundance to winter mortality of Whooping Cranes. Wilson. J. Ornithol. 125(3): 658-661.

Putnam, M. 2007. Saving the Whooping Crane, one egg at a time. ICF Bugle 33(1): 4-5.

Runge, M. C.; Converse, S. J.; Lyons, J. E. 2011. Which uncertainty? Using expert elicitation and expected value of information to design an adaptive program. Biol. Conserv. 144: 1214-1223.

Shaw, T. 2011. Citizen Tip Leads to Closure of Whooping Crane Shooting in Indiana. Available at: http://www.bringbackthecranes.org/newsroom/2011/nr18April2011.html. (Accessed: 29th March).

Smith, E. H. 2019. Species Review: Whooping Crane (Grus americana). In: Mirande, C. M.; Harris, J. T. (ed.), Crane Conservation Strategy., pp. 223-244. International Crane Foundation., Baraboo, Wisconsin, USA.

Stehn, T. 2008. Whooping Crane recovery highlights. ICF Bugle 34(4): 5.

Stehn, T. and T. Wassenich. 2008. Whooping crane collisions with power lines: an issue paper. 2006 North American Crane Workshop. In press.

Stehn, T. V.; Wassinich, T. 2008. Whooping Crane collisions with power lines: an issue paper. In: Folk, M. J.; Nesbitt, S. A. (ed.), Proceedings of the 10th North American . Proceedings of the 10th North American Crane Workshop, 7–10 February 2006, Zacatecas City, Zacatecas, Mexico. Leesburg Printing, Leesburg, Florida, USA: North American Crane Working Group. p 25–36..

Timoney, K. 1999. The habitat of nesting Whooping Cranes. Biological Conservation 89: 189-197.

Whooping Crane Eastern Partnership. 2017. Whooping Crane Update January 1, 2017. Available at: http://www.bringbackthecranes.org/technicaldatabase/projectupdates/2016/01Jan2017.html.

Wright, G. D.; Harner, M. J.; Chambers, J. D. 2014. Unusual wintering distribution and migratory behavior of the Whooping Crane (Grus americana) In 2011–2012. Wilson J. Ornithol. 126(1): 115-120.

Zimorski, S. 2011. Whooping Cranes return to Louisiana. ICF Bugle 37(2): 8.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Crane Specialist Group

International Crane Foundation Species Field Guide

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan

Status, Survey and Conservation Action Plan

This species has been identified as an Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) trigger - click here for more information

This species has been identified as an Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) trigger - click here for more information

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service - Draft Recovery Plan (2005)

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Grus americana. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/08/2022.