Whooping Crane Grus americana


Archibald, G. 2009. A challenging year for Whooping Cranes. ICF Bugle 35(3): 1-2.

Archibald, G. W.; Meine, C. D. 1996. Gruidae (Cranes). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 60-89. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Beilfuss, R. 2013. Water for Whoopers is water for all. ICF Bugle 39(2): 1-2.

Belaire, J. A.; Kreakie, B. J.; Keitt, T.; Minor, E. 2014. Predicting and Mapping Potential Whooping Crane Stopover Habitat to Guide Site Selection for Wind Energy Projects. Conserv. Biol. 28: 541-550.

Boyce, M.S.; Lele, S. R.; Johns, B.W. 2005. Whooping crane recruitment enhanced by egg removal. Biological Conservation 126: 395-401.

Butler, M. J.; Harrell, W. 2016. Whooping Crane Survey Results: Winter 2015–2016. Available at: https://www.fws.gov/uploadedFiles/Region_2/NWRS/Zone_1/Aransas-Matagorda_Island_Complex/Aransas/Sections/What_We_Do/Science/Whooping_Crane_Updates_2013/WHCR%20Update%20Winter%202015-2016.pdf.

Butler, M. J.; Metzger, K. L.; Harris, G. 2014. Whooping crane demographic responses to winter drought focus conservation strategies. Biol. Conserv. 179: 72-85.

Chavez-Ramirez, F. 2007. Sandhill crane staging and whooping Crane migratory stopover dynamics in response ro river management activities on the Central Platte River, Nebraska, USA. 31st Annual Meeting of the Waterbird Society, 30 October - 3 November 2007, Edifici Històric, Universitat de Barcelona, pp. 111.

Chu, M.; Stone, W.; McGowan, K. J.; Dhondt, A. A.; Hochachka, W. M.; Therrien, J. E. 2003. West Nile file. Birdscope 17: 10-11.

Department of Wildlife and Fisheries State of Louisiana. 2017. Population Update. Available at: http://wlf.louisiana.gov/blog-post/population-update. (Accessed: 25/01/2017).

Folk, M. J.; Dellinger, T. A.; Leone, E. H. 2013. Is Male-biased Collision Mortality of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) in Florida Associated with Flock Behavior? Waterbirds 36(2): 214-219.

Garland, J. and Peterson, D. 2009. Wild Whooping Crane Chick Hatches at Necedah National Wildlife Refuge. Available at: http://www.bringbackthecranes.org/newsroom/2009/nr21June2009.html. (Accessed: 29th March).

Glenn, T. G.; Stephan, W.; Braun, M. J. 1999. Effects of a population bottleneck on Whooping Crane mitochondrial DNA variation. Conservation Biology 13: 1097-1107.

Harrell, W.; Bidwell, M. 2015. Report on Whooping Crane Recovery Activities (2014 breeding season-2015 spring migration).

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 April 2017).

IUCN. 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 December 2019).

Lewis, J. 1997. Alerting the birds. Endangered Species Bulletin 22: 22-23.

Lewis, J. C. 1995. Whooping Crane (Grus americana). In: Poole, A.; Gill, F. (ed.), The birds of North America, No. 153, pp. 1-28. The Academy of Natural Sciences, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Philadelphia, and Washington, DC.

Line, L. 1995. Flight school for cranes. Wildlife Conservation 98: 36-45.

MacKenzie, T. 2011. Second Whooping Crane Found Dead at Weiss Lake, Alabama. Available at: http://www.bringbackthecranes.org/newsroom/2011/nr18February2011.html. (Accessed: 29th March).

Meine, C. D. and Archibald, G. W. 1996. The cranes - status survey and conservation action plan. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, U.K.

Pugesek, B. H.; Baldwin, M. J.; Stehn, T. 2013. The relationship of blue crab abundance to winter mortality of Whooping Cranes. Wilson. J. Ornithol. 125(3): 658-661.

Putnam, M. 2007. Saving the Whooping Crane, one egg at a time. ICF Bugle 33(1): 4-5.

Runge, M. C.; Converse, S. J.; Lyons, J. E. 2011. Which uncertainty? Using expert elicitation and expected value of information to design an adaptive program. Biol. Conserv. 144: 1214-1223.

Shaw, T. 2011. Citizen Tip Leads to Closure of Whooping Crane Shooting in Indiana. Available at: http://www.bringbackthecranes.org/newsroom/2011/nr18April2011.html. (Accessed: 29th March).

Stehn, T. 2008. Whooping Crane recovery highlights. ICF Bugle 34(4): 5.

Stehn, T. and T. Wassenich. 2008. Whooping crane collisions with power lines: an issue paper. 2006 North American Crane Workshop. In press.

Timoney, K. 1999. The habitat of nesting Whooping Cranes. Biological Conservation 89: 189-197.

Whooping Crane Eastern Partnership. 2017. Whooping Crane Update January 1, 2017. Available at: http://www.bringbackthecranes.org/technicaldatabase/projectupdates/2016/01Jan2017.html.

Wright, G. D.; Harner, M. J.; Chambers, J. D. 2014. Unusual wintering distribution and migratory behavior of the Whooping Crane (Grus americana) In 2011–2012. Wilson J. Ornithol. 126(1): 115-120.

Zimorski, S. 2011. Whooping Cranes return to Louisiana. ICF Bugle 37(2): 8.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Crane Specialist Group

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

International Crane Foundation Species Field Guide

Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan

Status, Survey and Conservation Action Plan

This species has been identified as an Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) trigger - click here for more information

This species has been identified as an Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) trigger - click here for more information

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service - Draft Recovery Plan (2005)

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Grus americana. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/12/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/12/2020.