Whooping Crane Grus americana


Archibald, G. W.; Meine, C. D. 1996. Gruidae (Cranes). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 60-89. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Beilfuss, R. 2013. Water for Whoopers is water for all. ICF Bugle 39(2): 1-2.

Belaire, J. A.; Kreakie, B. J.; Keitt, T.; Minor, E. 2014. Predicting and Mapping Potential Whooping Crane Stopover Habitat to Guide Site Selection for Wind Energy Projects. Conserv. Biol. 28: 541-550.

Boyce, M.S.; Lele, S. R.; Johns, B.W. 2005. Whooping crane recruitment enhanced by egg removal. Biological Conservation 126: 395-401.

Butler, M. J.; Harrell, W. 2016. Whooping Crane Survey Results: Winter 2015–2016. Available at: https://www.fws.gov/uploadedFiles/Region_2/NWRS/Zone_1/Aransas-Matagorda_Island_Complex/Aransas/Sections/What_We_Do/Science/Whooping_Crane_Updates_2013/WHCR%20Update%20Winter%202015-2016.pdf.

Butler, M. J.; Metzger, K. L.; Harris, G. 2014. Whooping crane demographic responses to winter drought focus conservation strategies. Biol. Conserv. 179: 72-85.

Chu, M.; Stone, W.; McGowan, K. J.; Dhondt, A. A.; Hochachka, W. M.; Therrien, J. E. 2003. West Nile file. Birdscope 17: 10-11.

Department of Wildlife and Fisheries State of Louisiana. 2017. Population Update. Available at: http://wlf.louisiana.gov/blog-post/population-update. (Accessed: 25/01/2017).

Folk, M. J.; Dellinger, T. A.; Leone, E. H. 2013. Is Male-biased Collision Mortality of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) in Florida Associated with Flock Behavior? Waterbirds 36(2): 214-219.

Glenn, T. G.; Stephan, W.; Braun, M. J. 1999. Effects of a population bottleneck on Whooping Crane mitochondrial DNA variation. Conservation Biology 13: 1097-1107.

Harrell, W.; Bidwell, M. 2015. Report on Whooping Crane Recovery Activities (2014 breeding season-2015 spring migration).

Lewis, J. 1997. Alerting the birds. Endangered Species Bulletin 22: 22-23.

Lewis, J. C. 1995. Whooping Crane (Grus americana). In: Poole, A.; Gill, F. (ed.), The birds of North America, No. 153, pp. 1-28. The Academy of Natural Sciences, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Philadelphia, and Washington, DC.

Line, L. 1995. Flight school for cranes. Wildlife Conservation 98: 36-45.

Meine, C. D. and Archibald, G. W. 1996. The cranes - status survey and conservation action plan. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, U.K.

Pugesek, B. H.; Baldwin, M. J.; Stehn, T. 2013. The relationship of blue crab abundance to winter mortality of Whooping Cranes. Wilson. J. Ornithol. 125(3): 658-661.

Putnam, M. 2007. Saving the Whooping Crane, one egg at a time. ICF Bugle 33(1): 4-5.

Runge, M. C.; Converse, S. J.; Lyons, J. E. 2011. Which uncertainty? Using expert elicitation and expected value of information to design an adaptive program. Biol. Conserv. 144: 1214-1223.

Stehn, T. and T. Wassenich. 2008. Whooping crane collisions with power lines: an issue paper. 2006 North American Crane Workshop. In press.

Timoney, K. 1999. The habitat of nesting Whooping Cranes. Biological Conservation 89: 189-197.

Whooping Crane Eastern Partnership. 2017. Whooping Crane Update January 1, 2017. Available at: http://www.bringbackthecranes.org/technicaldatabase/projectupdates/2016/01Jan2017.html.

Wright, G. D.; Harner, M. J.; Chambers, J. D. 2014. Unusual wintering distribution and migratory behavior of the Whooping Crane (Grus americana) In 2011–2012. Wilson J. Ornithol. 126(1): 115-120.

Further resources

Audubon WatchList

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

International Crane Foundation Species Field Guide

Search for photos, videos and sounds of this species in the Internet Bird Collection.

Status, Survey and Conservation Action Plan

This species has been identified as an Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) trigger - click here for more information

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service - Draft Recovery Plan (2005)

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Grus americana. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/09/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/09/2019.