LC
Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus



References

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Gardarsson, A. 2006. Temporal processes and duck populations: examples from Myvatn. Hydrobiologia 567: 89-100.

Gudmundsson, F. 1979. The past status and exploitation of the Myvatn waterfowl populations. Oikos 32(1-2): 232-249.

Johnsgard, P.A. 1978. Ducks, geese and swans of the World. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London.

Kear, J. 2005. Ducks, geese and swans volume 1: general chapters; species accounts (Anhima to Salvadorina). Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.

Larsen, J. K.; Clausen, P. 2002. Potential wind park impacts on Whooper Swans in winter: The risk of collision. In: Rees, E. C.; Earnst, S. L.; Coulson, J. (ed.), Proceedings of the 4th International Swan Symposium, pp. 327-330. Waterbird Society.

Ma, M.; Cai, D. 2002. Threats to Whooper Swans in Xinjiang, China. In: Rees, E. C.; Earnst, S. L.; Coulson, J. (ed.), Proceedings of the 4th International Swan Symposium, pp. 331-333. Waterbird Society.

Madge, S.; Burn, H. 1988. Wildfowl. Christopher Helm, London.

Melville, D.S.; Shortridge, K.F. 2006. Migratory waterbirds and avian influenza in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway with particular reference to the 2003-2004 H5N1 outbreak. In: G. Boere, C. Galbraith and D. Stroud (eds), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 432-438. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, U.K.

Nikolaeva, N.G.; Spiridonov, V.A.; Krasnov, Y.V. 2006. Existing and proposed marine protected areas and their relevance for seabird conservation: a case study in the Barents Sea region. In: G. Boere, C. Galbraith and D. Stroud (eds), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 743-749. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK.

Scott, D. A.; Rose, P. M. 1996. Atlas of Anatidae populations in Africa and western Eurasia. Wetlands International, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Spray, C. J.; Milne, H. 1988. The incidence of lead poisoning among whooper and mute swans Cygnus cygnus and C. olor in Scotland. Biological Conservation 44: 265-281.

Wetlands International. 2015. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: wpe.wetlands.org. (Accessed: 17/09/2015).

Further resources

IUCN SSC Swan Specialist Group

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

Jump to the case study for this species in Wildlife comeback in Europe: The recovery of selected mammal and bird species (Deniet et al. 2003)

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

The Wildfowl and Wetland Trust (WWT) - Species Account

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Cygnus cygnus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/10/2021.