LC
Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 9350 g
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 29,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 61,600,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Unknown not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.3 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number > c.180,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The population in Russia has been estimated at c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 25,300-32,800 pairs, which equates to 50,600-65,500 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is uncertain, as some populations are decreasing, while others are increasing, stable or have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). In Europe the population size is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria V Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus V Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt V Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Hungary V Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes Yes
Israel V Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes Yes
Liechtenstein V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal V Extant
Qatar V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria V Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Absheron archipelago (north) and Pirallahi bay
Azerbaijan Divichi liman (or Lake Akzibir)
Azerbaijan Glynanyi island
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Pirsagat Islands and Los Island
Azerbaijan Sangachal Bay
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit
Azerbaijan Yashma Island
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon
Lithuania Metelys, Dusia & Obelija lakes
Estonia Matsalu Bay
Estonia Haapsalu-Noarootsi bays
Estonia Suur Väin strait
Estonia Käina bay
Estonia Hari Kurk strait
Estonia Hiiumaa islets
Estonia Kihnu strait
Estonia Audru polder
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Väike Väin strait
Estonia Küdema bay
Estonia Paldiski bay
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Latvia Pape
Latvia Liepaja lake
Latvia Aiviekste flood-plain
Latvia Babite lake
Latvia Daugava river at Kaibala
Latvia Seda marsh
Latvia Berzpils bogs and flood-plains
Latvia Vidusburtnieks
Latvia Durbe lake meadows
Latvia Daudzeva fishponds and Aklais bog
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds
Latvia Upesciems
Latvia Lake Kanieris
Latvia Lake Lielauce
Latvia Skrunda fish-ponds
Latvia Satini fish-ponds
Latvia Svete lower reaches
Bulgaria Durankulak Lake
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Parches-Somova wetland
Romania Comana
Romania Lake Strachina
Romania Strejesti reservoir
Iceland Öxarfjördur
Iceland Mývatn-Laxá
Iceland Miklavatn-Skógar
Iceland Arnarvatnsheidi-Tvidaegra
Iceland Alftafjordur-Hofsstadavogur
Iceland Alftanes-Akrar
Iceland Ferjubakkaflói-Nordurá
Iceland Ósasvædi Ölfusár
Iceland Sog
Iceland Stokkseyri-Eyrarbakki
Iceland Pollengi-Hrosshagavík
Iceland Vetleifsholtsbugar-Thykkvabæjarvatn
Iceland Skúmsstadavatn
Iceland Veidivötn
Iceland Lónsfjördur
Iceland Alftafjordur-Hamarsfjordur
Iceland Austara Eylendid
Iceland Hóp-Vatnsdalur
Iceland Hestgerdislón-Hornafjardarfljót
Ireland Stabannan-Braganstown
Ireland Lough Oughter
Ireland Lough Derravaragh
Ireland Lough Iron and Glen Lough
Ireland Lough Owel
Ireland River Suck callows: Shannon Bridge-Castlecoote
Ireland River Little Brosna callows: New Bridge - River Shannon
Ireland River Shannon callows: Portumna-Athlone
Ireland North Wicklow coastal marshes
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Ireland River Blackwater callows
Ireland Lough Gill
Ireland Shannon and Fergus Estuaries
Ireland Rahasane turlough
Ireland Lough Conn and Lough Cullin (including Moy valley)
Ireland Lough Gara
Ireland Durnesh Lough
Ireland Sheskinmore Lough
Ireland Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake
Ireland River Foyle: Carrigans and Swilly Burn valleys
Ireland Lady's Island Lake
Ireland Upper Barrow flood-plain
Ireland Kilcolman bog
Ireland Lough Mask
Ireland Coole Park and Garryland complex
Ireland Broadhaven, Blacksod and Tullaghan Bays and parts of the Mullet peninsula
Ireland Lough Foyle
Belgium Demervallei
Turkey Meriç Delta
Moldova Lower Prut River and Manta-Beleu Lake
Sweden Tavvavouma
Sweden Sjaunja
Sweden Lake Laidaure
Sweden Lake Tjålme – Valley of Lais
Sweden Vindel Mountains (including Lake Tärna)
Sweden River Ume Delta and Plains
Sweden River Dal – Håvran
Sweden Färnebofjärden
Sweden River Svartån
Sweden Bay of Kil
Sweden Lake Östen
Sweden Lake Dättern
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Lake Tåkern
Sweden Lake Kävsjön – Store Mosse
Sweden Getterön
Sweden River Helge
Sweden River Klingaälv – Lake Kranke
Sweden Lake Persöfjärden
Sweden Lake Gammelstadsviken
Sweden Lake Tysslingen
Sweden Kullaberg
Sweden Lake Solgen
Sweden Lomma Bight
Sweden Lake Ralången – Lake Hyllingen
Sweden Ledskär – Bay of Karlholm
Sweden Lake Tämnaren
Sweden Florarna
Sweden Sandemar
Sweden Dannemora
Sweden Bay of Torslanda
Sweden Hanveden – Hemfosa
Sweden Lake Östra Styran
Sweden Fjord of Stig
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Ostrówek and Smogulec ponds
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Weltyn lakes
Poland Slesin and Wystep ponds
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Miedwie site
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Odra riverine forests
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Evros delta
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Netherlands IJssel: Deventer - Zwolle
Netherlands Oostvaardersplassen
Netherlands Frisian Wadden Sea coast
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
Netherlands IJssel: Zwolle - Ketelmeer
Netherlands Waal: Ewijk - Waardenburg
Netherlands Alde Feanen
Netherlands Van Oordt's Mersken
Netherlands Gelderse Poort
Iceland Stafnes-Gardur
Iceland Eyjavatn-Fridmundarvötn
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Teutjärvi and Suvijärvi lakes
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Torronsuo and Lake Talpianjärvi
Finland Koijärvi lake
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Keski-Kallavesi and Kuhanen Lake
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Viklinrimpi
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Alajoki
Finland Lålby fields
Finland Lapväärti wetlands
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Sundominlahti Bay and Söderfjärden
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Ahmasjärvi lake
Finland Litokaira
Finland Kitka lake
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Närängänvaara-Virmajoki-Romevaara
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Krunnit archipelago
Finland Juortanansalo
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Rumala-Kuvaja-Oudonrimmet
Finland Tornionjoki Delta
Finland Kilsiaapa-Ristivuoma
Finland Martimoaapa-Lumiaapa-Penikat
Finland Veittiaapa-Ristiaapa
Finland Karunginjärvi lake
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Sammutinjänkä-Vaijoenjänkä
Finland Riisitunturi
Finland Luosto
Finland Kevo
Finland South-eastern Kittilä mires
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Veselovskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Koporski Bay
Russia (European) Delta of River Severnaya Dvina
Russia (European) Lake Lacha
Russia (European) Zaonezh'ye
Russia (European) Khaypudyrskaya Bay (Islands of B. Zelenets, Dolgi, Matveyev)
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Kostroma river
Russia (European) Western Ilmen area
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay
Russia (European) Lakes of northern Karelia
Russia (European) Ponoiskaya depression
Russia (European) Watershed of the Rivers Strelna and Varzuga
Russia (European) Russki Zavorot Peninsula and eastern part of Malozemelskaya Tundra
Russia (European) Mordovian P. G. Smidovich Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Torna-Shoina watershed
Russia (European) Eastern coast of the Sea of Azov
Russia (European) Stakhovski marshes
Russia (European) Savtsinskoye marsh
Russia (European) Surroundings of Kiyesh'yaur lake
Russia (European) Mouth of Svir river
Russia (European) Volga Delta
Russia (European) Kurgalski Peninsula
Russia (European) Swans area (southern shore of Finski Bay)
Russia (European) Kenozer'ye
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Jansheijs'ke lake
Ukraine Budats'kyj lyman
Ukraine Tyligul's'kyj lyman
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Askania-Nova Biosphere Reserve
Ukraine Kugurluj and Kartal lakes
Ukraine Shagany-Alibej-Burnas lake-system
Ukraine Stentsivs'ko-Zhebriyanivs'ki plavni
Ukraine Stanychno-Lugans'ke fish-farm
France Ried de Colmar et Sélestat
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Etang de Lindre
France Cap Gris-nez
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Val de Saône
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Confluent des vallées de la Meuse et de la Chiers
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
United Kingdom Alvie
United Kingdom Annaghroe, River Blackwater
United Kingdom Belfast Lough
United Kingdom Bridgend Flats, Islay
United Kingdom Caithness Lochs
United Kingdom Cameron Reservoir
United Kingdom Bae Caerfyrddin/Carmarthen Bay
United Kingdom Castle Loch, Lochmaben
United Kingdom Dyfi Estuary/Aber Dyfi
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Lower Derwent Valley
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary
United Kingdom Dundrum Inner Bay
United Kingdom Eden Estuary, Tentsmuir Point and Abertay Sands
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Firth of Tay and Eden Estuary
United Kingdom Flanders Moss and Lake of Menteith
United Kingdom Greenlaw Moor
United Kingdom Hamford Water
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Inner Clyde
United Kingdom Larne Lough
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Gruinart Flats
United Kingdom Loch Ken and Dee Marshes
United Kingdom Loch Leven
United Kingdom Loch Lomond
United Kingdom Loch of Isbister
United Kingdom Loch of Kinnordy
United Kingdom Loch of Lintrathen
United Kingdom Loch of Skene
United Kingdom Loch of Strathbeg
United Kingdom Loch Spynie
United Kingdom Lochs of Harray and Stenness
United Kingdom Lochs of Spiggie and Brow
United Kingdom Lough Foyle and River Foyle
United Kingdom Lough Neagh and Lough Beg
United Kingdom Lower Lough Macnean
United Kingdom Martin Mere
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Mill Dam, Shapinsay
United Kingdom Montrose Basin
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom Muir of Dinnet
United Kingdom Nene Washes
United Kingdom Broadland
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors
United Kingdom North Uist Machair and Islands
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Ouse Washes
United Kingdom Outer Ards
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom River Spey - Insh Marshes
United Kingdom South Tayside Goose Roosts
United Kingdom Uists Machairs, Lochs and Coast
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Tay - Isla Valley
United Kingdom Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Tiree and Coll
United Kingdom Upper Lough Erne
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom Wigtown Bay
United Kingdom Ythan Estuary, Sands of Forvie and Meikle Loch
United Kingdom Muirkirk and North Lowther Uplands
United Kingdom Canna and Sanday
United Kingdom Cuillins
United Kingdom Frome Flood-plain
United Kingdom Black Cart
United Kingdom Loch Ryan
United Kingdom Breydon Water
United Kingdom West Coast, Lewis (Corncrake)
United Kingdom West Coast of Benbecula
Italy Venice lagoon
Italy Caorle lagoon
Poland Slowinska Site
Romania Bistreţ
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Romania Black Sea
Denmark Saltholm
Denmark Roskilde Fjord, Selsø and Kattinge Søerne
Denmark Tissø, Lille Åmose and Hallenslev Mose
Denmark Saltbæk Vig
Denmark Islands and coast between Skælskør Fjord and Glænø
Denmark Ballum og Husum Enge, Kamper strandenge
Denmark Skælskør Nor, Skælskør Fjord and Borreby Mose
Denmark Tystrup-Bavelse Søerne
Denmark Holmegård Mose & Porsmose
Denmark Præstø Fjord, Ulvshale, Nyord and Jungshoved Nor
Denmark Nakskov Fjord and Indrefjord
Denmark Guldborgsund
Denmark Islands in Smålandshavet, north of Lolland
Denmark Ulvsund, Grønsund, Farø Fjord and Fanefjord
Denmark Hyllekrog-Rødsand and Fehmarn Belt
Denmark Karrebæk, Dybsø and Avnø Fjords (coasts and islands)
Denmark Fiilsø
Denmark Lillebælt
Denmark Ringkøbing Fjord
Denmark Stadil Fjord and Veststadil Fjord
Denmark Harboøre Tange, Plet Enge & Gjeller Sø
Denmark Nissum Fjord
Denmark Parts of Randers and Mariager Fjords
Denmark Lovns Bredning
Denmark Løgstør Bredning
Denmark Coast from Aggersund to Bygholm Vejle
Denmark Ulvedybet and Nibe Bredning
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø
Denmark Odense Fjord
Denmark Sydfynske Ø-hav
Denmark Stavnsfjord and adjacent waters
Denmark Norsminde (Kysing) Fjord
Denmark Hjarbæk Fjord
Denmark Agger Tange and Krik Vig
Denmark Hanstholm Reservation
Denmark Ovesø
Denmark Western part of Vejlerne, Arup Holm and Hovsør Røn
Denmark Lønnerup Fjord
Denmark Eastern part of Vejlerne
Denmark Lille Vildmose
Denmark Flyndersø and Stubbergård Lake
Denmark Bolle and Try meadows
Denmark Store Vildmose, Ryå and Stavad Enge
Denmark Coast between Dokkedal and Lyngså
Georgia Kolkheti
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Norway Smøla archipelago
Norway Gaulosen
Norway Øvre Pasvik
Norway Ørlandet
Norway Vorma
Norway Lake Storsjøen
Norway Lista wetland system
Norway Stjørdalsfjord
Norway Lake Leksdalsvatn
Denmark Marstal Bugt and the coast of south-west Langeland
Poland Puck Bay
Sweden Tärnan – Riala
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Putzarer See, Galenbecker See, Brohmer Berge
Germany Eastern shore of Lake Müritz, Grosser Schwerin and Steinhorn
Germany Lewitz
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Westrügen - Hiddensee - Zingst
Germany Weserstaustufe Schlüsselburg
Germany Hamme lowlands
Germany Hunte lowlands near Oldenburg
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Traveförde and Dassower See
Germany Western bay of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Schlei
Germany Aland-Elbe lowlands
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Drömling (Niedersachsen)
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Starnberger See
Germany Main valley near Schweinfurt
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Grosshartmannsdorfer Grossteich
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Borgfelder Wümmewiesen
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Oppenweher Moor
Germany Möhnesee
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Weser valley near Stolzenau and Landesbergen
Germany Rheiderland
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, unembanked area
Germany Groß Fullener Moor
Germany Wesuwer Brook
Germany Südradde lowlands
Germany Leine valley near Salzderhelden
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Wittmund-Wangerland
Germany Norden-Esens, inland
Germany Kleinringer and Großringer Wösten
Germany Jadebusen, inland
Germany Valley of River Ems
Germany Alfsee
Germany Krummhörn-Westermarsch
Germany Lower Aller lowlands
Germany Dümmer
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Wümmewiesen near Fischerhude
Germany Spreewald
Germany Lowlands of middle Havel
Germany Oberes Rhinluch / Havelländisches Luch Nauen-Friesack
Germany Unteres Rhinluch-Dreetzer See / Havelländisches Luch / Belziger Landschaftswiesen
Germany Lower Elbe valley
Germany Land Wursten
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Fiener Bruch
Germany Lowlands of River Ems near Lathen
Germany Lowlands of the Rivers Eider, Treene and Sorge
Germany Warder See
Germany Hohwachter Bucht
Germany Grosser and Kleiner Binnensee
Germany Eastern bight of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Pinneberg Elbe lowlands
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Lahn valley from Marburg to Wetzlar
Germany Northern Wetterau
Germany Gladenbach mountains east of Herborn
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Eder alluvion
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Reservoir near Affoldern
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Rheinaue Bingen-Ingelheim
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Norway Setesdal valley (southern part)
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Neretva Delta
Croatia Krka and Surrounding Plateau
Croatia Vrana Lake and Jasen
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Danube
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds
Estonia Pärnu bay and Kihnu strait
Denmark Northwestern Kattegat
Denmark Smålandsfarvandet [DK130]
Latvia Tasu lake
Poland Pasleka river valley
Netherlands IJssel: IJsselkop - Ketelmeer
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Russia (European) Southern coast of Ladoga Lake
Russia (European) Seskar island
Russia (European) Fish ponds in the vicinity of Kovashi and Syur'yevskoye bog
Russia (European) Southern coast of the Neva bay
Russia (European) North-western subburbs of St.-Petersburg
Russia (European) Petrocrepost' Bay
Russia (European) Vyborgski Bay
Russia (European) Dedinovo flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Lake Vyal'ye and adjoining marshes
Russia (European) Kizlyar Bay
China (mainland) Sanjiang Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Honghe Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dali Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan
China (mainland) Bayanbulak and Kaidu River Valley
China (mainland) Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Rongcheng Swan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yuncheng Swan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Sanmenxia Dam Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Hongjian Nur
China (mainland) Heyang Huang He Wetlands Nature Reserve
North Korea Chongchon River estuary (including Mundok Nature Reserve)
North Korea Onchon field
North Korea Taedong River estuary
North Korea Unryul Kumsanpo
North Korea Chongdan field
North Korea Lake Manpo and Lake Bonpo
North Korea Lake Kwangpo
North Korea Kumya Bay
South Korea Songji-ho lake
South Korea Gumi Haepyeong
South Korea Upo swamp
South Korea Junam reservoir
Japan Shintsutsumi reservoir
Japan Izunuma and nearby lakes
Japan Tama river
Japan Mogamigawa estuary
Mongolia Tolbo Lake
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Khovsgoliin Sangiin Dalai Lake
Japan Notsuke, Odaitou
Japan Lake Furen, On-netou
Japan Middle Ishikari River basin
Japan Mutsu bay
Mongolia Ogii Lake
Mongolia Mongol Daguur
Mongolia Khukh Lake
Mongolia Ganga Lakes
North Korea Lake Tungjong and Lake Chonapo
North Korea Lake Samilpo
Japan Lake Akkeshi, Bekanbeushi marsh
Russia (Asian) Chelomdzha valley and Kava-Chelomdzha interfluve
Russia (Asian) Tyk and Viakhtu bays
Russia (Asian) Evoron-Chukchagirskoye depression
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake
Russia (Asian) Ulukhkol' lake
Russia (Asian) Mukhtel' lake
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye Lake
Russia (Asian) Khadyn lake
Russia (Asian) North-east Sakhalin lagoons
Russia (Asian) Azhabach'ye lake
Russia (Asian) Nerpich'ye Lake and Kamchatka River delta
Russia (Asian) Moroshechnaya River
South Korea Gyeongpo-ho lake
South Korea Gocheonam-ho lake
South Korea Gangjin Bay
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary
South Korea Hwajinpo-ho lake
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary
Russia (Asian) Lebediny refuge (Markovo depression)
Russia (Asian) Kharchinskoye lake
Russia (Asian) Amur river mouth
Estonia Koigi
Estonia Kõrvemaa
Estonia Lavassaare
Estonia Meelva bog
Estonia Puhatu mire
Estonia Põhja-Kõrvemaa
Estonia Pakri
Estonia Põhja-Liivimaa
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Kõnnumaa-Väätsa
Estonia Peipsi
Estonia Rubina
Estonia Nätsi-Võlla
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Väinameri
Estonia Taarikõnnu-Kaisma
Estonia Soomaa
Russia (Central Asian) Bystroistokskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Mamontovskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Lake Tenis
Russia (European) Kuloy river
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'koye lake near Karas'ye village
Russia (Central Asian) Lebedinoye and Svetloye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Man'yass lake
Russia (Central Asian) Lakes Tobol-Kushly and Akul
Russia (Central Asian) Travykul' lake
Russia (Central Asian) Lakes Linejskoe and Kamyshnoe
Russia (Central Asian) Vicinities of lake Achikul
Russia (Central Asian) Forest-steppe Kabyrdakskaja
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Azerbaijan Kura Delta
Russia (Central Asian) Zdvinsky zakaznik
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Russia (Central Asian) Stekleney Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoe Gor'koye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Taezhno-Mikhaylovsky
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtan Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Krutali Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhne-Kondinsky zakaznik
Russia (Central Asian) Watershed of the Mulym'ya and Bolshoy Tap rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Lake Bolshoy Uvat
Russia (Central Asian) Mangut Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kuznetsky Alatau Zapovednik
Russia (Central Asian) Butash and Gor'koye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Russkoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Intenis Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtaily lake
Russia (Central Asian) Greater and Lesser Kadkul', Alabuga and Tirikul' Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shie Chertany Lake
Russia (Central Asian) North flood-plain of the Ishim river
Russia (Central Asian) Kyzil-Chilik valley
Russia (European) Mouth of Yeya river
Russia (European) Karakulinskaya flood-plain
Russia (Central Asian) Yakush Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kazanskaya flood-plain of the Ishim river
Russia (Central Asian) Pesochnoe Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoe Mit'kino Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Marjanovski part of Kamyshlovskaya valley
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhneoschskaya
Latvia Dviete flood-plain
Latvia Irbe valley and Dizpurvs
Latvia Uzava lowland
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Kuja
Latvia Zvarde forest
Latvia Kemeri national park
Latvia Slitere and Zilie kalni
Latvia Stikli
Latvia Sturu and Zvardes bogs
Latvia Razna
Bulgaria Zhrebchevo Reservoir
Bulgaria Gorni Dabnik-Telish Reservoir
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Zvanichevo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Maritsa-Plovdiv
Bulgaria Zlato Pole
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex
Russia (Central Asian) Saltaim-Tenis lake
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Baie de Goulven
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Camargue
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Etangs de la Woëvre: la Chaussée
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 10
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Isei Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Busly lake
Russia (Central Asian) Seketovo, Rakhtovo and Artevo lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Alabota lake
Russia (European) Kivach Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Curonian Bay
Russia (Central Asian) Belozerskaya flood-plain of river Tobol
Russia (Central Asian) Reservoir near river Sukhaya
Russia (Central Asian) Kurumbel'skaya steppe
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Mandesarskoye reservoir
Russia (Central Asian) Plateau Ukok
Russia (Central Asian) Tundrovo lake
Russia (Central Asian) Teletskoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Pershinsko-Manatkinsky area
Russia (Central Asian) Kamyshnoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kataiginskiye bogs
Russia (Central Asian) Ust'-Ozerninskiye bogs
Russia (Central Asian) Vodorazdel'naya
Russia (Central Asian) Solenoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy and Maly Akh lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Dzhulukul' depression
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lavandavil Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lapoo - Zargmarz ab-bandans
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bibishervan and Lake Eymar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Lithuania Birveta Fish-farm including segments of Dysna River and Birveta River valleys
Norway Tyrifjord wetland system
Bulgaria Mandra-Poda complex
Bulgaria Burgasko Lake
Bulgaria Kamchia Complex
Turkmenistan Garabogaz - Garshy
Turkmenistan Soltandag - Gyzylburun
Turkmenistan Khanguyy
Turkmenistan Jarsay - Khangui
Turkmenistan Turkmen Bay
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
United Kingdom Sleibhtean Agus Chladach Thiriodh
Turkmenistan Deryatakyr
Kazakhstan Zhaltyr Lake
Sweden Lake Vendel
Kazakhstan Zharkol Lakes
Sweden Muddus
Sweden Galtö – Älgö
Sweden Lake Lim
Sweden Bog of Dumme
Poland Barycz river valley
Poland Biebrza river valley
Kazakhstan Tuzkol Lake
Poland Lower Bug river valley
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Kazakhstan Cherniy (Black) Irtysh Delta
Kazakhstan Markakol State Nature Reserve
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Insko Site
Poland Luknajno lake
Kazakhstan Shalkar Lake
Russia (European) Budary lakes
Russia (European) Floodplain of the Terek river near Staroshchedrinskaya
Kazakhstan Aksuat Lake
Kazakhstan Bolshoy Kak Lake
Kazakhstan Sorbalyk-Maybalyk Lake System
Poland Cedynia Site
Poland Goleniow Forest
Poland Trzebiatow Site
Poland Witnica-Debno Site
Poland Drawa River Site
Poland Forest at Drawa River
Kazakhstan Terenkol Lake
Poland Zgierzynieckie Lake
Kazakhstan Balykty Lake
Poland Bielawa Swamps
Poland Pilica River Valley
Kazakhstan Maliy Kak Lake
Poland Warmia Site
Kazakhstan Sorbalyk Lake
Kazakhstan Zhylandy Lake
Poland Wkra and Mlawka Rivers Valleys
Poland Lower Notec River Valley
Poland Upper Labunka River Valley
Turkmenistan Gurtli
Turkmenistan Kopetdagkhovudan
Turkmenistan Chokrak-Tutly
Russia (European) Taman'
Russia (European) Varnavinsko-Kryukovskaya irrigation system
Poland Kamien Lagoon and Dziwna River
Kazakhstan Kushum Lakes
Kazakhstan Akzhan Lake
Kazakhstan Sulukol Lake
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System
Kazakhstan Kumdykol-Zharlykol Lake System
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System
Kazakhstan Kamyshovoe-Zhamankol Lakes
Kazakhstan Sankebay Lakes
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Russia (Central Asian) Upper streams of Ob' river
Netherlands Fochteloërveen
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Netherlands Biesbosch
Germany Gotteskoogsee
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Pöyrisvuoma mire protection area
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Kukkiajärvi lake
Finland Nuuksio
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shaya Indra lake
Russia (Central Asian) Dikoye and Epanchino lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Istochnoye, Sredneye and Schuch'ye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Kondinskiye lakes
Poland Upper Vistula River Valley
Germany Hattstedt marshes
Germany Haaler Au lowlands
Kazakhstan Batpakkol lake
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Russia (European) Watershed of Kazanka and Shoshma rivers
Germany Coastline of Probstei
Germany Landgraben and Dumme lowlands
Germany Winsener Elbmarsch
Germany Thülsfeld reservoir
Germany Ahlhorner fishponds
Germany Geeste lowlands near Bramel
Germany Selenter See
Germany Selent-Plön fishponds
Germany East- and south-east coast of Fehmarn
Germany Neustädter Bucht
Germany Eastern part of Kiel Bight
Germany Deichvorland Oderbruch
Germany Lucie and Landwehr
Germany Engerhafer Meede
Germany Usedom lagoon (Peenestrom, Achterwasser, Kleines Haff with Neuwarper See)
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Surroundings of Dassower See
Germany Großer and Kleiner Jasmunder Bodden with Schmachter See and Nonnensee
Germany Elbe valley of Mecklenburg
Germany Eschebrügger Wösten
Germany Engdener Wüste
Germany Huvenhoopsmor and Breddorfer Wiesen
Germany Drennhauser Hinterdeich
Germany Lengeder Teichgebiet
Germany Oker valley near Vienenburg
Germany Georgsdorfer and Dalum-Wietmarscher Moor and Alte Piccardie
Germany Dammer Moor
Germany Dosse-Jäglitz lowlands
Germany Luchgebiet Spaatz-Hohennauen-Witzke
Germany Malxe lowlands / Lakomaer Teiche
Germany Oderbruch
Germany Eriskircher Ried of Lake Constance
Germany Oppenweher Moor
Germany Eder alluvion
Germany Wetterau
Germany Farmlands Lich-Utphe
Germany Untermain
Germany Southern shore of Eckernförder Bucht
Germany Kühren Teich and Lanker See
Ireland Lough Ree
Romania Lake Bugeac
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Lake Oltina
Romania Buhuşu reservoir - Bacău - Tătărăşti
Romania Limanu - Herghelia
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu
Romania Olt valley
Romania Iezerul Călăraşi
Romania Lake Fundata
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Romania Măxineni
Romania Ilfov reservoir
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Romania Lake Taşaul
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom South Uist Machair and Lochs
United Kingdom The Wash
Kyrgyzstan Western Issyk Kul Lake
Kyrgyzstan Eastern Issyk Kul Lake
Kyrgyzstan Tokmak Pheasant Reserve
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
Denmark Bøtø Nor
Denmark Glomstrup Vig, Agerø, Munkholm and Katholm Odde, Lindholm, and Rotholme
Denmark Heath areas in Sønder Feldborg Plantage
Denmark Hovvig
Denmark Nærå Coast and Æbelø area
Denmark Vestamager and adjacent sea area
Lithuania Wetland complex of the Baltoji Voke fish-farm with neighbouring turbary and lake Papis
Lithuania Flooded meadows arround the Senoji & Naujoji Rusne lakes
Lithuania Visbarai fish-farm
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers
Poland Swidwie Site
Kazakhstan Karasor Lake
Kazakhstan Korgankol Lake
Kazakhstan Karasuk
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Knyszyn Forest
Poland Bialowieza Forest
Poland Narew river gaps
Poland Lower Narew River Valley
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Poland Liwiec river valley
Kazakhstan Zhylandy Lake
Poland Notec river flood-plain
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Samica Valley
Poland Middle Odra River Valley
Poland Slawskie Lakes
Poland Woniesc reservoir
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Bzura River Valley
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Lower Silesia Forests
Poland Przemków ponds
Poland Oak-hornbeam forests in the Odra valley
Kazakhstan Kultansor and Tatysor Lakes
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Kazakhstan Tassuat Lake
Poland Janów forests
Poland Otmuchów reservoir
Poland Upper Odra River Valley
Poland Pulwy Marshes
Poland Czarna River Valley
Poland Lower Wieprz River Valley
Poland Przysowia and Sludwia River valley
Poland Stobrawa Watershed
Poland Vistula Spit
Poland Turek Site
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Kwiecewo Site
Poland Satopy-Samulewo Site
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xilin Gol Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng
China (mainland) Bosten Lake
China (mainland) Yuncheng Wetland Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Tortoise Islands
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Kazakhstan Zharsor-Urkash Salt Lakes
Kazakhstan Tounsor Hollow Lakes
Kazakhstan Amankaragay Forest
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Kazakhstan Shoshkaly Lake System
Kazakhstan Teniz-Karakamys Lakes
Kazakhstan Shagyrkol and Mamyrkol lakes
Kazakhstan Russkiy Zharkol
Kazakhstan Salmanykol lake
Kazakhstan Russkiy Zharkol
Russia (Asian) Troitskoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kunovatski
Russia (Central Asian) Kondo-Alymskaya
Norway Jæren
Norway Varanger Peninsula
Norway Andøya (including Skogvoll)
Norway Dokkadelta
Norway Iešjávri
Norway Øvre Anárjohka
Norway Reisa
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Kõrgessaare-Mudaste coast
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Lahepera lake
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Ropka-Ihaste
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Kunda
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Estonia Karula
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System
Netherlands Grevelingen
Netherlands Veluwerandmeren
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Slagharen - de Krim
Estonia Misso
Russia (European) Islands in the western part of Lake Manych-Gudilo
Sweden Påkketan
Sweden Rödkallen – Söräspen Islands
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 9
Kazakhstan Saumalkol Lake
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Sweden Bay of Rynninge
Sweden Falsterbo – Bay of Fote
Sweden Western part of Lake Mälaren
Sweden Bay of Skälder

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Cygnus cygnus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/10/2021.