Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 9350 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 29,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 61,600,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Unknown not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.3 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number > c.180,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The population in Russia has been estimated at c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 25,300-32,800 pairs, which equates to 50,600-65,500 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is uncertain, as some populations are decreasing, while others are increasing, stable or have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). In Europe the population size is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria V Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus V Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt V Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Hungary V Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes Yes
Israel V Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes Yes
Liechtenstein V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal V Extant
Qatar V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria V Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Absheron archipelago (north) and Pirallahi bay
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Divichi liman (or Lake Akzibir)
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Glynanyi island
Azerbaijan Kura Delta
Azerbaijan Pirsagat Islands and Los Island
Azerbaijan Sangachal Bay
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit
Bulgaria Burgasko Lake
Bulgaria Kamchia Complex
Bulgaria Mandra-Poda complex
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex
China (mainland) Bayanbulak and Kaidu River Valley
China (mainland) Bosten Lake
China (mainland) Dali Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng
China (mainland) Heyang Huang He Wetlands Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Honghe Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Hongjian Nur
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan
China (mainland) Rongcheng Swan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Sanjiang Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Sanmenxia Dam Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xilin Gol Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yuncheng Wetland Nature Reserve
Denmark Bolle and Try meadows
Denmark Eastern part of Vejlerne
Denmark Fiilsø
Denmark Flyndersø and Stubbergård Lake
Denmark Hanstholm Reservation
Denmark Hjarbæk Fjord
Denmark Holmegård Mose & Porsmose
Denmark Karrebæk, Dybsø and Avnø Fjords (coasts and islands)
Denmark Lille Vildmose
Denmark Lønnerup Fjord
Denmark Nakskov Fjord and Indrefjord
Denmark Nissum Fjord
Denmark Odense Fjord
Denmark Parts of Randers and Mariager Fjords
Denmark Roskilde Fjord, Selsø and Kattinge Søerne
Denmark Store Vildmose, Ryå and Stavad Enge
Denmark Sydfynske Ø-hav
Denmark Tissø, Lille Åmose and Hallenslev Mose
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø
Denmark Tystrup-Bavelse Søerne
Denmark Ulvedybet and Nibe Bredning
Denmark Ulvsund, Grønsund, Farø Fjord and Fanefjord
Denmark Western part of Vejlerne, Arup Holm and Hovsør Røn
Estonia Koigi
Estonia Kõnnumaa-Väätsa
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Lavassaare
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Nätsi-Võlla
Estonia Pakri
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Peipsi
Estonia Põhja-Liivimaa
Estonia Soomaa
Estonia Väinameri
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Finland Karunginjärvi lake
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Sundominlahti Bay and Söderfjärden
Finland Torronsuo and Lake Talpianjärvi
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Germany Aland-Elbe lowlands
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Dammer Moor
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Deichvorland Oderbruch
Germany Dosse-Jäglitz lowlands
Germany Dümmer
Germany Eastern bight of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Eastern part of Kiel Bight
Germany Eder alluvion
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Elbe valley of Mecklenburg
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Eriskircher Ried of Lake Constance
Germany Farmlands Lich-Utphe
Germany Fiener Bruch
Germany Geeste lowlands near Bramel
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Groß Fullener Moor
Germany Großer and Kleiner Jasmunder Bodden with Schmachter See and Nonnensee
Germany Grosshartmannsdorfer Grossteich
Germany Haaler Au lowlands
Germany Hamme lowlands
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Hunte lowlands near Oldenburg
Germany Huvenhoopsmor and Breddorfer Wiesen
Germany Krummhörn-Westermarsch
Germany Lahn valley from Marburg to Wetzlar
Germany Landgraben and Dumme lowlands
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Leine valley near Salzderhelden
Germany Lewitz
Germany Lower Aller lowlands
Germany Lower Elbe valley
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, unembanked area
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Lowlands of River Ems near Lathen
Germany Lowlands of the Rivers Eider, Treene and Sorge
Germany Luchgebiet Spaatz-Hohennauen-Witzke
Germany Lucie and Landwehr
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Möhnesee
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Oberes Rhinluch / Havelländisches Luch Nauen-Friesack
Germany Oderbruch
Germany Pinneberg Elbe lowlands
Germany Rheiderland
Germany Schlei
Germany Spreewald
Germany Starnberger See
Germany Surroundings of Dassower See
Germany Traveförde and Dassower See
Germany Unteres Rhinluch-Dreetzer See / Havelländisches Luch / Belziger Landschaftswiesen
Germany Untermain
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Germany Usedom lagoon (Peenestrom, Achterwasser, Kleines Haff with Neuwarper See)
Germany Valley of River Ems
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Warder See
Germany Weser valley near Stolzenau and Landesbergen
Germany Weserstaustufe Schlüsselburg
Germany Wesuwer Brook
Germany Wetterau
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Wittmund-Wangerland
Iceland Alftafjordur-Hamarsfjordur
Iceland Alftafjordur-Hofsstadavogur
Iceland Alftanes-Akrar
Iceland Arnarvatnsheidi-Tvidaegra
Iceland Eyjavatn-Fridmundarvötn
Iceland Ferjubakkaflói-Nordurá
Iceland Hestgerdislón-Hornafjardarfljót
Iceland Hóp-Vatnsdalur
Iceland Lónsfjördur
Iceland Miklavatn-Skógar
Iceland Mývatn-Laxá
Iceland Öxarfjördur
Iceland Pollengi-Hrosshagavík
Iceland Skúmsstadavatn
Iceland Sog
Iceland Stafnes-Gardur
Iceland Stokkseyri-Eyrarbakki
Iceland Vetleifsholtsbugar-Thykkvabæjarvatn
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Ireland Broadhaven, Blacksod and Tullaghan Bays and parts of the Mullet peninsula
Ireland Durnesh Lough
Ireland Lough Foyle
Ireland Lough Iron and Glen Lough
Ireland Lough Oughter
Ireland Lough Ree
Ireland Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake
Ireland River Blackwater callows
Ireland River Foyle: Carrigans and Swilly Burn valleys
Ireland River Suck callows: Shannon Bridge-Castlecoote
Ireland Shannon and Fergus Estuaries
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Japan Izunuma and nearby lakes
Japan Lake Akkeshi, Bekanbeushi marsh
Japan Lake Furen, On-netou
Japan Middle Ishikari River basin
Japan Mogamigawa estuary
Japan Mutsu bay
Japan Notsuke, Odaitou
Japan Shintsutsumi reservoir
Japan Tama river
Kazakhstan Aksuat Lake
Kazakhstan Balykty Lake
Kazakhstan Bolshoy Kak Lake
Kazakhstan Isei Lake
Kazakhstan Kamyshovoe-Zhamankol Lakes
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Kumdykol-Zharlykol Lake System
Kazakhstan Kushum Lakes
Kazakhstan Maliy Kak Lake
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Sankebay Lakes
Kazakhstan Shalkar Lake
Kazakhstan Sorbalyk-Maybalyk Lake System
Kazakhstan Terenkol Lake
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System
Kazakhstan Zhaltyr Lake
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System
Kazakhstan Zhylandy Lake
Kazakhstan Zhylandy Lake
Kyrgyzstan Western Issyk Kul Lake
Latvia Babite lake
Latvia Daugava river at Kaibala
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds
Latvia Pape
Latvia Satini fish-ponds
Latvia Seda marsh
Latvia Skrunda fish-ponds
Latvia Svete lower reaches
Latvia Tasu lake
Latvia Uzava lowland
Lithuania Birveta Fish-farm including segments of Dysna River and Birveta River valleys
Lithuania Flooded meadows arround the Senoji & Naujoji Rusne lakes
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon
Lithuania Visbarai fish-farm
Lithuania Wetland complex of the Baltoji Voke fish-farm with neighbouring turbary and lake Papis
Mongolia Ganga Lakes
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Khovsgoliin Sangiin Dalai Lake
Mongolia Khukh Lake
Mongolia Mongol Daguur
Mongolia Ogii Lake
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes
Mongolia Tolbo Lake
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers
Netherlands Gelderse Poort
Netherlands IJssel: IJsselkop - Ketelmeer
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
Netherlands Oostvaardersplassen
North Korea Chongchon River estuary (including Mundok Nature Reserve)
North Korea Chongdan field
North Korea Kumya Bay
North Korea Lake Kwangpo
North Korea Lake Manpo and Lake Bonpo
North Korea Lake Samilpo
North Korea Lake Tungjong and Lake Chonapo
North Korea Onchon field
North Korea Taedong River estuary
North Korea Unryul Kumsanpo
Norway Andøya (including Skogvoll)
Norway Dokkadelta
Norway Jæren
Norway Lake Leksdalsvatn
Norway Lake Storsjøen
Norway Lista wetland system
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Norway Ørlandet
Norway Øvre Anárjohka
Norway Øvre Pasvik
Norway Reisa
Norway Tyrifjord wetland system
Norway Vorma
Poland Barycz river valley
Poland Drawa River Site
Poland Insko Site
Poland Knyszyn Forest
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Lower Silesia Forests
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Middle Odra River Valley
Poland Middle part of Tuchola forest
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Odra riverine forests
Poland Przemków ponds
Poland Puck Bay
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
Poland Slowinski National Park
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Poland Warmia Site
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Romania Black Sea
Romania Buhuşu reservoir - Bacău - Tătărăşti
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Iezerul Călăraşi
Romania Ilfov reservoir
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Romania Lake Bugeac
Romania Lake Fundata
Romania Lake Oltina
Romania Lake Strachina
Romania Lake Taşaul
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Limanu - Herghelia
Romania Măxineni
Romania Olt valley
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Russia (Asian) Amur river mouth
Russia (Asian) Azhabach'ye lake
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake
Russia (Asian) Chelomdzha valley and Kava-Chelomdzha interfluve
Russia (Asian) Evoron-Chukchagirskoye depression
Russia (Asian) Khadyn lake
Russia (Asian) Kharchinskoye lake
Russia (Asian) Lebediny refuge (Markovo depression)
Russia (Asian) Moroshechnaya River
Russia (Asian) Mukhtel' lake
Russia (Asian) Nerpich'ye Lake and Kamchatka River delta
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye Lake
Russia (Asian) North-east Sakhalin lagoons
Russia (Asian) Tyk and Viakhtu bays
Russia (Asian) Ulukhkol' lake
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shaya Indra lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy and Maly Akh lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Bystroistokskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Dikoye and Epanchino lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Russia (Central Asian) Istochnoye, Sredneye and Schuch'ye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Kataiginskiye bogs
Russia (Central Asian) Kondinskiye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Kondo-Alymskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtaily lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kuznetsky Alatau Zapovednik
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Russia (Central Asian) Pershinsko-Manatkinsky area
Russia (Central Asian) Russkoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Seketovo, Rakhtovo and Artevo lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Taezhno-Mikhaylovsky
Russia (Central Asian) Upper streams of Ob' river
Russia (Central Asian) Ust'-Ozerninskiye bogs
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhne-Kondinsky zakaznik
Russia (Central Asian) Vodorazdel'naya
Russia (Central Asian) Watershed of the Mulym'ya and Bolshoy Tap rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Zdvinsky zakaznik
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Floodplain of the Terek river near Staroshchedrinskaya
Russia (European) Islands in the western part of Lake Manych-Gudilo
Russia (European) Kenozer'ye
Russia (European) Khaypudyrskaya Bay (Islands of B. Zelenets, Dolgi, Matveyev)
Russia (European) Kizlyar Bay
Russia (European) Kuloy river
Russia (European) Lake Lacha
Russia (European) Lake Vyal'ye and adjoining marshes
Russia (European) Lakes of northern Karelia
Russia (European) Mouth of Svir river
Russia (European) North-western subburbs of St.-Petersburg
Russia (European) Petrocrepost' Bay
Russia (European) Ponoiskaya depression
Russia (European) Southern coast of Ladoga Lake
Russia (European) Southern coast of the Neva bay
Russia (European) Swans area (southern shore of Finski Bay)
Russia (European) Taman'
Russia (European) Varnavinsko-Kryukovskaya irrigation system
Russia (European) Veselovskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Vyborgski Bay
Russia (European) Watershed of the Rivers Strelna and Varzuga
South Korea Gangjin Bay
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary
South Korea Gocheonam-ho lake
South Korea Gumi Haepyeong
South Korea Gyeongpo-ho lake
South Korea Hwajinpo-ho lake
South Korea Junam reservoir
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary
South Korea Songji-ho lake
South Korea Upo swamp
Sweden Bay of Kil
Sweden Bay of Torslanda
Sweden Bog of Dumme
Sweden Färnebofjärden
Sweden Fjord of Stig
Sweden Getterön
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Lake Laidaure
Sweden Lake Lim
Sweden Lake Östen
Sweden Lake Östra Styran
Sweden Lake Persöfjärden
Sweden Lake Ralången – Lake Hyllingen
Sweden Lake Solgen
Sweden Lake Tåkern
Sweden Lake Tämnaren
Sweden Lake Tysslingen
Sweden Lake Vendel
Sweden Ledskär – Bay of Karlholm
Sweden Lomma Bight
Sweden Muddus
Sweden River Dal – Håvran
Sweden River Helge
Sweden River Klingaälv – Lake Kranke
Sweden River Svartån
Sweden River Ume Delta and Plains
Sweden Sandemar
Turkey Meriç Delta
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
United Kingdom Annaghroe, River Blackwater
United Kingdom Black Cart
United Kingdom Caithness Lochs
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Loch of Strathbeg
United Kingdom Lochs of Spiggie and Brow
United Kingdom Lough Foyle and River Foyle
United Kingdom Lough Neagh and Lough Beg
United Kingdom Lower Derwent Valley
United Kingdom Martin Mere
United Kingdom Mill Dam, Shapinsay
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Ouse Washes
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom River Spey - Insh Marshes
United Kingdom Sleibhtean Agus Chladach Thiriodh
United Kingdom South Uist Machair and Lochs
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Tiree and Coll
United Kingdom Upper Lough Erne
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Cygnus cygnus. Downloaded from on 21/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 21/11/2019.