White's Thrush Zoothera aurea


Taxonomic note
The subspecies neilgherriensis has been moved from Z. aurea into Z. dauma, following song analysis that showed it to belong with the latter species (Weir 2018).

Previously, Zoothera dauma (Sibley and Monroe [1990, 1993]) and Z. imbricata (Collar [2004]) were lumped together into Z. dauma and subsequently split into Z. dauma, Z. major and Z. aurea following del Hoyo and Collar (2016).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International. 2019. Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International digital checklist of the birds of the world. Version 4. Available at:

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency medium
Land mass type Average mass 104 g

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 42,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 16,700,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals unknown not applicable not applicable 0
Population trend decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -

Population justification: The global population size has not been quantified. The species is variously described as uncommon to fairly common across much of its range (Clement and Hathway 2000). In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 25,000-100,000 breeding pairs, equating to 75,000-300,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004), but Europe forms <5% of the global range.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction and degradation, although it is increasing in Europe (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Austria extant vagrant
Bangladesh extant native
Belgium extant vagrant
Bhutan extant native
Cambodia extant native yes
China (mainland) extant native yes
Denmark extant vagrant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) extant vagrant
Finland extant vagrant
France extant vagrant
Germany extant vagrant
Iceland extant vagrant
Indonesia extant native yes
Ireland extant vagrant
Italy extant vagrant
Japan extant native yes yes
Kazakhstan extant native yes
Laos extant native yes
Malaysia extant vagrant
Mongolia extant native yes
Montenegro extant vagrant
Myanmar extant native yes
Nepal extant native
Netherlands extant vagrant
Norway extant vagrant
Oman extant vagrant yes
Pakistan extant native
Philippines extant native yes
Poland extant vagrant
Romania extant vagrant
Russia extant native yes
Russia (Asian) extant native yes
Russia (Central Asian) extant native yes
Russia (European) extant native yes
Serbia extant vagrant
Slovenia extant vagrant
South Korea extant native yes
Spain extant vagrant
Sri Lanka extant native yes
Sweden extant vagrant
Taiwan, China extant native yes
Thailand extant native yes
United Kingdom extant vagrant
Vietnam extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal major breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Boreal suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 3600 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Zoothera aurea. Downloaded from on 07/06/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 07/06/2023.