LC
White-winged Tern Chlidonias leucopterus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 27,200,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 131,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9.9 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.3,100,000-4,000,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 66,600-173,000 pairs, which equates to 133,000-347,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is stable, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). In Europe the population size is estimated to be fluctuating (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan V Extant
Albania N Extant
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda V Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Australia N Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahamas V Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Benin N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Botswana N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada V Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) V Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Dominica V Extant
Egypt N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho V Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Maldives N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Marshall Islands V Extant
Martinique (to France) V Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Montserrat (to UK) V Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nauru V Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Zealand N Extant
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea N Extant
Philippines N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal V Extant
Puerto Rico (to USA) V Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Réunion (to France) V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant
São Tomé e Príncipe V Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Seychelles N Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Solomon Islands V Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis V Extant
St Lucia V Extant
St Vincent and the Grenadines V Extant
Sudan N Extant
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland N Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes Yes
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) V Extant
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
USA V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belarus Dakudaŭskaje
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Burundi Rusizi National Park
China (mainland) Wuyumen
Ethiopia Abijatta - Shalla Lakes National Park
Israel Carmel coast
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Kenya Masinga reservoir
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast
Malaysia Pulau Bruit National Park
Malaysia South-west Johor coast
Mali Lac Débo - Lac Oualado Débo
Mali Lac Faguibine
Mali Lac Horo
Mauritania Gâat Mahmoûdé
Philippines Manila Bay
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Shchuch'ye lake
Russia (European) Bryn'
Russia (European) Kizlyar Bay
Russia (European) Kozinka lake and Baranikovski segment of Manych
Russia (European) Nizhnekamskaya flood-plain
Russia (European) Ptich'ya magistral' area
Russia (European) Ressetinskiye floods
Russia (European) Valley of Zhizdra river
Saudi Arabia National Wildlife Research Center and environs, Taif
Senegal Lac de Guiers
Senegal Niayes (from Dakar to St Louis)
South Africa Barberspan and Leeupan
South Africa Berg River Estuary
South Africa False Bay Nature Reserve
Sudan Gezira
Tanzania Lake Kitangire
Tanzania Lake Manyara
Tanzania Lake Rukwa
Tanzania Lake Victoria: Mara Bay and Masirori swamp
Tanzania Moyowosi - Kigosi Game Reserves
Tanzania Serengeti National Park
Tanzania Yaida Chini
Uganda Lutembe Bay
Uganda Sango Bay area
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Sosyns'kyj protected area
Ukraine Stokhod river valley
Ukraine Udaj river valley
Zambia Bangweulu Swamps
Zambia Barotse Floodplains
Zambia Kafue Flats

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable passage
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable passage
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Chlidonias leucopterus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2019.