LC
White-winged Tern Chlidonias leucopterus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 27,200,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 131,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9.9 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.3,100,000-4,000,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 66,600-173,000 pairs, which equates to 133,000-347,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is stable, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). In Europe the population size is estimated to be fluctuating (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan V Extant
Albania N Extant
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda V Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Australia N Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahamas V Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Benin N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Botswana N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada V Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) V Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Dominica V Extant
Egypt N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho V Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Maldives N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Marshall Islands V Extant
Martinique (to France) V Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Montserrat (to UK) V Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nauru V Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Zealand N Extant
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea N Extant
Philippines N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal V Extant
Puerto Rico (to USA) V Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Réunion (to France) V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant
São Tomé e Príncipe V Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Seychelles N Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Solomon Islands V Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis V Extant
St Lucia V Extant
St Vincent and the Grenadines V Extant
Sudan N Extant
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland N Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes Yes
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) V Extant
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
USA V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Serbia Carska bara
Azerbaijan Varvara Reservoir
Belarus Sporovo
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Beresina
Belarus Sož floodplain
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Lithuania Lake Kasonys and adjacent wetlands
Lithuania Metelys, Dusia & Obelija lakes
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Cyprus Akhna dam
Latvia Dviete flood-plain
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Lake Siutghiol
Romania Rotbav fish-ponds
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Slovenia Lake Cerknica
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta
Turkey Erzurum Marshes
Turkey Lake Van
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Liwiec river valley
Poland Chelm calcareous marshes
Poland Tysmienica river valley
Poland Middle Bug river valley
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Poland Narew river gaps
Poland Warta River Mouth
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Epanomi lagoon
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Strymonas estuary
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Lake Amvrakia
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Alyki lagoon, Aigio
Greece Lagoons of Kerkyra island
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Hungary Vértes
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság
Russia (European) Mouth of Samur river
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Volga Delta
Russia (European) Nizhnekamskaya flood-plain
Russia (European) Kalininski Plavny
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Supij marsh
Ukraine Kryva peninsula
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Udaj river valley
Ukraine Petropavlivs'kyj lyman
Ukraine Stokhod river valley
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Stanychno-Lugans'ke fish-farm
Ukraine Oril' river valley
Ukraine Mzha river valley
Ukraine Molochna river valley
Ukraine Samara river valley
Ukraine Zakhidnyj Bug river valley
Ukraine Orikhivski lake-system
Ukraine Debal'tsivs'ke lake
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
Italy Lake Alviano
Italy Vercelli rice-fields
Albania Lake Mikri Prespa
Georgia Javakheti Plateau
Georgia Kolkheti
Serbia Srednje Potamišje
Armenia Armash fish-farm
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Heubachniederung/ Schwarzes Venn/ Borkenberge/ Halterner Seen
Germany Heerter See
Germany Spreewald
Germany Rietzer See
Germany Federseeried
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Croatia Lower Posavina
Burundi Rusizi National Park
Ethiopia Abijatta - Shalla Lakes National Park
Kenya Masinga reservoir
Mali Lac Faguibine
Mali Lac Horo
Mali Lac Débo - Lac Oualado Débo
Sudan Gezira
Senegal Lac de Guiers
Senegal Niayes (from Dakar to St Louis)
Tanzania Lake Manyara
Tanzania Serengeti National Park
Tanzania Moyowosi - Kigosi Game Reserves
Tanzania Lake Kitangire
Tanzania Lake Rukwa
Tanzania Lake Victoria: Mara Bay and Masirori swamp
Uganda Sango Bay area
Uganda Lutembe Bay
South Africa Grasslands
South Africa Barberspan and Leeupan
South Africa Richards Bay Game Reserve
South Africa Berg River Estuary
South Africa False Bay Nature Reserve
Zambia Barotse Floodplains
Zambia Kafue Flats
Zambia Bangweulu Swamps
Ukraine Sosyns'kyj protected area
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Israel Carmel coast
Saudi Arabia National Wildlife Research Center and environs, Taif
Mauritania Gâat Mahmoûdé
Russia (European) Valley of Zhizdra river
Russia (European) Faustovo flood-plains of Moscow river
Russia (European) Kizlyar Bay
China (mainland) Wuyumen
Malaysia Pulau Bruit National Park
Malaysia South-west Johor coast
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast
Philippines Manila Bay
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
Belarus Sporaŭskaje balota
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Russia (European) Yashaltinskiye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Tobolo-Kurtamyshskay flood land
Russia (Central Asian) Bottomland rivers Miass at village Zharnikovo
Russia (Central Asian) Lake Tarutino
Russia (Central Asian) Man'yass lake
Russia (Central Asian) Lakes Kurakli-Majan, Majan and Alekul
Russia (Central Asian) Makushinsky Zakaznik
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Mayan lake
Russia (Central Asian) Tirikul' and Kadkul' lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of Tobol river near Lebedevka and Bugrovoye villages
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Azerbaijan Yashma Island
Azerbaijan Sangachal Bay
Russia (Central Asian) Kasmalinskaya and Barnaulskaya forest bands
Russia (Central Asian) Kharitonovsky complex of lakes and marshes
Russia (Central Asian) Proslaukhinskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Group of lakes: Karac'e, Starikovo, Julash
Russia (Central Asian) Karataban Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Tarutino Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'koe, Krivoe and Zhuravlinoe Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Terenkul' and Gagar'e Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Utich Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'koe Lake near village Lyskovo
Russia (Central Asian) Greater and Lesser Kadkul', Alabuga and Tirikul' Lakes
Russia (European) Bryn'
Russia (European) Podozerskie open pits
Russia (Central Asian) Cher'omukhovo Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhneoschskaya
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Galata
France Basse vallée du Var
Kazakhstan Karasor Lake
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Volga river between Gorodets and N.Novgorod
Russia (European) Sitnikovski Reserve
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Volga river between N.Novgorod and Pamyat' Parizhskoi Kommuny village
Russia (European) Marshes near Pavlovskoye Zaoch'ye and adjoining floodplain of Oka river
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Oka river in Vachski district of North Novgorod region and adjacent areas of Vladimir region
Russia (Central Asian) Seketovo, Rakhtovo and Artevo lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Shchuch'ye lake
Russia (European) Oka valley in vicinity of Murmino
Russia (European) Izhevsk flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Central Meschera lake system
Russia (Central Asian) Belozerskaya flood-plain of river Tobol
Russia (Central Asian) Sibirskaya anabranch (Irtysh flood-plain)
Russia (European) Forest in the middle reaches of Serezha river
Russia (European) Shumerlinskaya
Russia (European) Floodplain of Moksha river and Common Crane autumn aggegation near villages Khohlikha and Shaprikha
Russia (European) Floodplain of Pjana river near village Sarga
Russia (European) Floodplain of Oka river up-stream of the Murom
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Russia (European) Vicinity of Eruslan village
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Oka river between the mouth of Klyaz'ma river and Dzerzhinsk
Russia (European) Floodplain of Rudnya river and surroundings
Russia (Central Asian) Ata-Anay Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Taezhno-Mikhaylovsky
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gori Gol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Nowruzlu and Ghazanlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hashelan marsh and Doh Tappeh plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Jordan Qa' Khanna
Jordan Azraq
Oman Barr al Hikman
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Saudi Arabia Wadi Jawwah
Ukraine Gerojsk Lakes
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Kazakhstan Aksuat Lake
Russia (European) Lysyi Liman lake and valley of Vostochniy Manych river
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System
Kazakhstan Bolshoy Kak Lake
Russia (European) Kozinka lake and Baranikovski segment of Manych
Kenya Tana River Delta
Turkey Erçek Lake
Turkey Van Plains
Belarus Dniepr floodplain Lojeŭ-Žary
Russia (European) Ressetinskiye floods
Russia (European) Ptich'ya magistral' area
Russia (European) Spassk flood-plain of Oka river
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Geeste lowlands near Bramel
Belarus Dakudaŭskaje
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Goleniow Forest
Poland Wizna Swamps
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Poland Notec river flood-plain
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Samica Valley
Poland Middle Odra River Valley
Poland Slawskie Lakes
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Ner River Valley
Poland Mosty-Zahajki Site
Poland Polesie
Poland Bubnow Marsh
Poland Nielisz Site
Poland Kuznica Warezynska Reservoir
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
Philippines Manila Bay - Marine
Kazakhstan Sankebay Lakes
Kazakhstan Ural River Valley
Belarus Pripiat
Tanzania Yaida Chini
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
China (mainland) Luannan coast and saltworks
South Sudan Sudd (Bahr-el-Jebel system)

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable passage
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable passage
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Chlidonias leucopterus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/04/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/04/2021.