White-winged Snowfinch Montifringilla nivalis


Taxonomic note
Montifringilla nivalis and M. henrici (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) were previously lumped as M. nivalis following AERC TAC (2003); Cramp et al. (1977-1994); Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 16,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 16,300,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 520,000-1,600,000 breeding pairs, equating to 1,560,000-4,800,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 25-49% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 3,180,000-19,200,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extinct Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Hungary V Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Portugal V Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Montenegro Durmitor
North Macedonia Shar Planina Mountain
North Macedonia River Radika catchment
Azerbaijan Zakataly
Slovenia Julijci
Turkey Aladağlar
Greece Mount Olympos
Greece Tymfi (Gkamila) and Smolikas mountains
Greece Athamanika mountains (Tzoumerka)
Greece Mount Vardousia
Greece Mount Gkiona
Greece Mount Parnassos
Russia (European) Bazarduyzi and Shalbuzdag alpine mountains
Russia (European) Kabardino-Balkarski Nature Reserve
Spain Babia-Somiedo
Spain Central ranges of the Cantabric mountains
Spain Riaño
Spain Picos de Europa mountain range
Spain Fuentes Carrionas
Spain Belagua-Ansó-Hecho
Spain Collarada-Telera
Spain Panticosa-Vignemale-Tendeñera
Spain Ordesa-Bielsa
Spain Gistaín-Cotiella
Spain Posets-Maladeta
Spain Oturia-Canciás
Spain Cadí mountains
France Vallée d'Asco
France Vallée du Haut-Guil
France Bois des Ayes
France Bois du Chapitre
France Parc National du Mercantour
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Hauts Plateaux du Vercors et Forêt des Coulmes
France Parc National de la Vanoise
Italy Antigorio and Formazza valleys
Italy Anzasca and Antrona valleys
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Susa and Chisone valleys
Italy Maritime Alps
Italy Orobie Alps and pre-Alps
Italy Camonica valley
Italy Stelvio National Park
Italy Adamello-Brenta
Italy Lessini and Pasubio mountains
Italy Tarvisio Forest
Italy Sibillini mountains
Italy Rieti mountains
Italy Ernici and Simbruini mountains
Italy Gran Sasso d'Italia
Italy Sirente, Velino and Duchessa mountains
Italy Maiella, Pizzi and Frentani mountains
Italy Abruzzo National Park
Italy Dolomites
Italy Mont Blanc (Italian side)
Italy Monte Rosa (Valle d'Aosta side)
Georgia Eastern Caucasus
Serbia Prokletije
Serbia Sara mountain
Austria Northern Kalkalpen
Austria Hohe Tauern National Park
Austria Niedere Tauern
Austria Nockberge National Park
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Pays d'Enhaut
Switzerland Augstmatthorn
Switzerland Upper Toggenburg and Säntis
Switzerland Central Valais between Sierre and Visp
Switzerland Valley of Zermatt
Switzerland Aletsch region
Switzerland Heinzenberg mountain and surrounding valleys
Switzerland Lower Engadine and Swiss National Park
Switzerland Simplon region
Switzerland Maggia valley
Switzerland Piora - Dötra
Switzerland Bregaglia valley
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Schwyz
Germany Ammergau mountains
Germany Karwendel and Karwendel foothills
Germany Berchtesgaden National Park
Afghanistan Big Pamir
Afghanistan Small Pamir
Afghanistan Salang Kotal
Afghanistan Bande Amir
Iran, Islamic Republic of Alborz-e Markazi Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lar River Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Sarani
Iran, Islamic Republic of Western Zagros north of Nowsud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Oshtrankuh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kuh-i Dena, and Yasuj and Sisakht area
Germany High alps of Allgäu
Germany Wetterstein mountain range
Italy Gran Sasso and Laga mountains
Turkey Bolkar Mountains
Turkey Girdev Lake and Akdağlar
Russia (European) Alaniya National Park
Armenia Amasia
Armenia Dsegh
Armenia Gndasar
Armenia Gorayk
Armenia Haghartsin
Kazakhstan Aksu-Dzhabagly State Nature Reserve
Uzbekistan Angren Plateau
Tajikistan Bulunkul and Yashilkul lakes and mountains
Tajikistan Zorkul Nature Reserve (Lake Victoria)
Tajikistan Karakul lake and mountains
Tajikistan Rangkul valley (Rangkul & Shorkul Lakes)
Tajikistan Dzhavshangoz
Tajikistan Kondara Gorge
Tajikistan Iskanderkul lake and mountains
Tajikistan Drumkul Lake
Tajikistan Aktash massif
Tajikistan Ishkashim
Kazakhstan Almaty State Nature Reserve
Uzbekistan Pulatkhan Gorge
Uzbekistan Oygaing River Valley
Turkey Bey Mountains
Turkey Munzur Mountains
Turkey Buzul and İkiyaka Mountains
Turkey Eastern Black Sea Mountains
Turkey Ağrı Mount
Kyrgyzstan Gorge Tash-Rabat
Kyrgyzstan Eastern Alai
Mongolia Khokh Serkhiin Nuruu
Mongolia Tsengel Khairkhan Mountain
Slovenia Karavanke
Iraq Peramagroon Mountain
Armenia Pombak mountain chain
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Montifringilla nivalis. Downloaded from on 26/11/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 26/11/2022.