LC
White-winged Scoter Melanitta deglandi



References

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Bendell, L.I. 2011. Sea ducks and aquaculture: the cadmium connection. Ecotoxicology 20(2): 474-478.

Brown, P.W., Fredrickson, L.H. 1997. White-winged Scoter (Melanitta fusca). In: Rodewald, P.G. (ed.), The Birds of North America, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, New York.

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Canadian Wildlife Service Waterfowl Committee. 2015. Population Status of Migratory Game Birds in Canada. CWS Migratory Birds Regulatory Report .

del Hoyo, J., Collar, N. & Kirwan, G.M. 2017. White-winged Scoter (Melanitta deglandi). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (ed.), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

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Johnsgard, P.A. 1978. Ducks, geese and swans of the World. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London.

Kear, J. 2005. Ducks, geese and swans volume 2: species accounts (Cairina to Mergus). Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.

Koneff, M. D., Zimmerman, G. S., Dwyer, C. P., Fleming, K. K., Padding, P. I., Devers, P. K., Johnson, F.A., Runge, M.C., Roberts, A. J. 2017. Evaluation of harvest and information needs for North American sea ducks. PloS one 12(4): e0175411.

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Melville, D.S.; Shortridge, K.F. 2006. Migratory waterbirds and avian influenza in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway with particular reference to the 2003-2004 H5N1 outbreak. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C.; Stroud, D (ed.), Waterbirds around the World, pp. 432-438. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, U.K.

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Riordan, B., Verbyla, D., & McGuire, A. D. 2006. Shrinking ponds in subarctic Alaska based on 1950–2002 remotely sensed images. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 111.

Scott, D. A.; Rose, P. M. 1996. Atlas of Anatidae populations in Africa and western Eurasia. Wetlands International, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Steinacher M. , Joos, F., Frolicher, T.L., Plattner, G.K., Doney, S.C. 2009. Imminent ocean acidification in the Arctic projected with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model. Biogeosciences 6(515-533).

Further resources

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Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Melanitta deglandi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/06/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/06/2019.