White-winged Scoter Melanitta deglandi


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Livezey, B. C. 1995. Phylogeny and evolutionary ecology of modern seaducks (Anatidae: Mergini). Condor 97(1): 233-255.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass 1757 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 6,260,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 21,600,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 0
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -

Population justification: There is apparently no reliable estimate of this species's total population, and further research is needed.

Trend justification: The overall population trend is thought to be negative (Delany and Scott 2006), although there are mixed results from combined scoter Melanitta spp. surveys (T. Bowman in litt. 2012). According to one analysis, this species appears to have undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count [CBC] [Butcher and Niven 2007]). Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America (Butcher and Niven 2007), and CBC data may not be reliable for tracking trends in this species, as it winters predominantly offshore, where a large proportion may not be visible to shore-based observers (T. Bowman in litt. 2012).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Mexico N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Lithuania Marine waters along the Curonian Spit
Estonia Matsalu Bay
Estonia Suur Väin strait
Estonia Hiiumaa islets
Estonia Kihnu strait
Estonia Pärnu bay
Estonia Riksu coast
Latvia Gulf of Riga, west coast
Latvia Irbe strait
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta
Turkey Balık Lake
Turkey Yeşilırmak Delta
Turkey Aktaş Lake
Turkey Nemrut Volcano
Sweden Archipelago of Östergötland
Sweden Archipelago of Stockholm
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Sweden Bay of Skälder
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Sweden Lövsta Bight – Björn Archipelago
Sweden Holmöarna Archipelago
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Luknajno lake
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Netherlands Wadden Coast
Finland Lågskär-Nyhamn
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Finland Pernaja outer archipelago
Finland Teutjärvi and Suvijärvi lakes
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Keski-Kallavesi and Kuhanen Lake
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Uusikaarlepyy archipelago
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Krunnit archipelago
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Sammutinjänkä-Vaijoenjänkä
Finland Pöyrisvuoma mire protection area
Finland Kevo
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Russia (European) Ainov islands
Russia (European) Khaypudyrskaya Bay (Islands of B. Zelenets, Dolgi, Matveyev)
Russia (European) Mouth of Svir river
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay
Russia (European) Torna-Shoina watershed
Ukraine Lyman lake
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Iles Saint Marcouf
France Littoral Augeron
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Baie de Vilaine
France Baie de Quiberon
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Brenne centrale
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Boucle de Moisson
France Bassée et plaines adjacentes
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etang de Lindre
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Cap Gris-nez
France Camargue
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Ile de la Platière
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Lac et marais du Bourget
United Kingdom Bae Caerfyrddin/Carmarthen Bay
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Scapa Flow
United Kingdom Sounds around Wyre
Italy Po Delta
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Italy Isonzo mouth, Cona island and Panzano Gulf
Italy Ortazzo and Ortazzino
Romania Black Sea
Denmark South Læsø
Denmark Løgstør Bredning
Denmark Parts of Randers and Mariager Fjords
Denmark Sejerø Bay and Nekselø
Denmark Coast between Dokkedal and Lyngså
Denmark Stavnsfjord and adjacent waters
Denmark Horsens Fjord, Svanegrunden & Endelave
Denmark Nærå Coast and Æbelø area
Denmark Northern Kattegat
Georgia Javakheti Plateau
Norway Balsfjord
Norway Ørlandet
Norway Gaulosen
Norway Smøla archipelago
Norway Lista wetland system
Norway Stjørdalsfjord
Norway Inner Trondheimsfjord
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord
Poland Puck Bay
Germany Flensburger Innen- and Aussenförde
Germany Hohwachter Bucht
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Ammersee
Germany Starnberger See
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Outer Wismarbucht
Germany Sea area Darß - Hiddensee with Plantagenetgrund
Germany Pomeranian bay
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Pärnu bay and Kihnu strait
Germany Untermain
Denmark Northwestern Kattegat
Poland Central Polish coastal waters
Poland Pomeranian bay
Turkey Akdoğan Mountain
Turkey Sakarya Delta
Turkey Giresun Island
Turkey Çoruh Valley
Turkey Aygır Lake
Canada Frank Lake (north)
Canada Little Qualicum Estuary to Nanoose Bay
Canada Cleland Island and Southeast Clayoquot Sound
Canada Moore and Byers Islands and Banks
Canada Alder Island
Canada Cumshewa Inlet north to Sheldens Bay
Canada Skidegate Inlet
Canada McIntyre Beach and Rose Spit
Canada Churchill and Vicinity
Canada Kaweenakumik Lake
Canada Nelson River Estuary and Marsh Point
Canada Seal River Estuary
Canada Point Lepreau/Maces Bay
Canada Witless Bay Islands
Canada Prince Edward County South Shore
Canada St. Mary's River Complex (Echo Bay ON to Maxton Bay MI)
Canada West End of Lake Ontario
Canada Redberry Lake
Canada Old Crow Flats
Russia (European) Petrocrepost' Bay
Russia (Asian) Tyk and Viakhtu bays
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay
Russia (Asian) Kolyma-Alazeya lowland
Russia (Asian) Forty islands
Russia (Asian) Abyy lowland
Estonia Kolga bay
Estonia Pakri
Estonia Väinameri
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Russia (Central Asian) Pelymsky Tuman
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy and Maly Vagilsky Tuman
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey
Sweden Bay of Brå – Hävringe Island
Kazakhstan Sorbalyk-Maybalyk Lake System
Kazakhstan Terenkol Lake
Turkmenistan Mergen
Turkey Eastern Black Sea Mountains
Denmark Jammerbugten
China (mainland) Longfeng Wetland Nature Reserve
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
Poland Turek Site
Poland Swietokrzyskie Vistula River Valley
Poland East Border Waters
USA Glacier Bay & Icy Strait
USA Kachemak Bay
USA Prince William Sound
USA Eastern Kodiak Island Marine
USA Glacier Bay Outer Coast Marine
USA Ilnik Marine

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Grassland Tundra suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Other impacts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Species disturbance

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Melanitta deglandi. Downloaded from on 25/02/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 25/02/2021.