White-winged Lark Alauda leucoptera


Taxonomic note

Alauda leucoptera (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) was previously listed as Melanocorypha leucoptera.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2006 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 45 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,960,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 4,340,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 100000-499999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.8 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 10,000-50,000 pairs, which equates to 20,000-100,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.20% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 100,000-500,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The population is estimated to be in decline following apparent local declines, probably owing to the expansion of cultivation (del Hoyo et al. 2004). The European population is estimated to be fluctuating (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Austria V Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Bulgaria V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Finland V Extant
Germany V Extant
Greece V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Italy V Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan V Extant
Malta V Extant
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro V Extant
Poland V Extant
Romania V Extant
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia V Extant
Slovakia V Extant
Switzerland V Extant
Turkey V Extant
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Kazakhstan Aktubek
Kazakhstan Amangeldy
Kazakhstan Amankaragay Forest
Kazakhstan Chingiztau Mountains
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Korgankol Lake
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System
Kazakhstan Kumdykol-Zharlykol Lake System
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Sarysu River
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Kazakhstan Shoshkaly Lake System
Kazakhstan Tounsor Hollow Lakes
Kazakhstan Vicinity of Korgalzhyn village
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Russia (Central Asian) Birsuat

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Alauda leucoptera. Downloaded from on 16/12/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 16/12/2019.