CR
White-winged Flufftail Sarothrura ayresi



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
C2a(i) A2c+3c+4c; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i); D A2c+3c+4c; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i); D1+2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2015 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2013 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2012 Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
2008 Endangered B1a+b(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
2007 Endangered
2006 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,700 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 974,000 medium
Number of locations 2 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50-249 good estimated 2013
Population trend Decreasing medium suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.7 - - -

Population justification: The population in South Africa was previously estimated to be 235 birds, with at least a further 210-215 pairs in Ethiopia (A. Shimelis in litt. 1998), i.e. probably 700 mature individuals in total. The species can only be reliably surveyed in the breeding season in Ethiopia, but surveys risk disturbing nesting and thus have been avoided in the past (Y. D. Adebe in litt. 2013), and there is no clear evidence to suggest it doesn't breed in southern Africa (C. Symes in litt. 2016). Nevertheless, the lack of recent records and tiny area of remaining habitat suggest that the total population is now almost certainly fewer than 250 mature individuals, with both the Ethiopian and South African populations numbering fewer than 50 mature individuals each (Y. Adebe, M. Ewnetu, G. Gebreselassie and H. Smit-Robinson in litt. 2013). Surveys may be hampered by the fact that its call is essentially unknown, and thus individuals or areas containing this species may have been completely missed (C. Symes in litt. 2016).

Trend justification: This species's population is suspected to be decreasing very rapidly in line with levels of disturbance, habitat loss and degradation in Ethiopia and South Africa (Atkinson et al. 1996a, Taylor and van Perlo 1998, P.B. Taylor in litt. 1999, De Smidt and Evans 2003, Taylor and Grundling 2003, M. Drummond in litt. 2005, Y. Adebe, M. Ewnetu, G. Gebreselassie and H. Smit-Robinson in litt. 2013).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Ethiopia N Extant Yes Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
Zambia V Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Ethiopia Berga floodplain
Ethiopia Sululta plain
South Africa Franklin Vlei
South Africa Grasslands
South Africa Greater Ngwangwana River
South Africa Ingula Nature Reserve
South Africa Murphy's Rust
South Africa Penny Park
South Africa Steenkampsberg

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude major non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude major breeding
Altitude 2200 - 2600 m Occasional altitudinal limits (min) 1100 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Gathering terrestrial plants Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Other options Other threat Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Sarothrura ayresi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/12/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/12/2017.