NT
White-winged Apalis Apalis chariessa



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Near Threatened C2a(i)
2016 Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
2012 Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
2008 Vulnerable B1a+b(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 209,000 medium
Number of locations 14 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1500-7000 poor suspected 2007
Population trend Decreasing medium inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.7 - - -

Population justification: Forests in the Udzungwas contain the largest population of the species, with a best guess of 'a couple of thousand individuals'. In Malawi, the population is thought to be around 100 individuals or more (L. Dinesen in litt. 2007), in Mozambique the species only occupies a small area of forest, and in Kenya it may be extinct. In light of this information, the species's population size is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 individuals. This equates to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is considered to be in decline owing to the clearance and degradation of forests across the species's range, although the likely rate of decline has not been estimated.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Kenya N Possibly Extinct Yes
Malawi N Extant Yes
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Kenya Lower Tana River Forests
Malawi Liwonde Hills Forest Reserve
Malawi Soche Mountain Forest Reserve
Malawi Mount Mulanje Forest Reserve
Malawi Thyolo tea estates
Malawi Thyolo Mountain Forest Reserve
Mozambique Mount Chiperone
Tanzania Udzungwa National Park
Tanzania Udzungwa Mountains
Tanzania Uluguru Mountains
Tanzania Udzungwa Mountain Range

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 50 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Apalis chariessa. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/01/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/01/2022.