LC
White Wagtail Motacilla alba



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2006 Least Concern
2004 Not Recognised
2000 Not Recognised
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 25 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 37,800,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 101,000,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 135000000-221000000 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.2 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 16.9-27.6 million pairs, which equates to 33.9-55.2 million mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.25% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 135-221 million mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: In Europe, the population has been stable between 1980 and 2013 (EBCC 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Australia V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Brunei V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi V Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada V Extant
Cape Verde N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Comoros V Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon V Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) U Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Macao (China) N Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) V Extant
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palau V Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda U Extant
San Marino N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Korea N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant
Sudan N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania V Extant
Thailand N Extant
Togo V Extant
Trinidad and Tobago V Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant
Western Sahara N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia U Extant
Zimbabwe U Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Balota Jel'nia
Belarus Sož floodplain
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Romania Rarău Mountains - Giumalău
Sweden Sandemar
Poland Pisz forest
Greece Mount Athos and surrounding marine area
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Alyki lagoon, Aigio
Greece East Lakonia mountains
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Nisyros island and surrounding islets
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Mount Vourinos
Greece Kalamaki gorge and Zarkou mountains
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Apsalos and Moglenitsa gorges
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Mountains of central Evvoia
Greece Amorgos island
Greece Patmos island and surrounding islets
Greece Kinaros and Levitha islands and surrounding islets
Greece Islands and islets of northern Dodecanese
Greece Kalymnos, Telendos, Kalolimnos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Psili Ammos lagoon, Samos
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Western Skyros and islets
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Agios Efstratios island
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Tilos island and surrounding islets
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Symi island and surrounding islets
Greece Southern Mani, mount Sangias and cape Tainaro
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Spercheios valley and delta and Maliakos gulf
Greece Serifos island
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Strofades islets
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Kasos island and surrounding islets
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinountas gorge
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Greece Vouraïkos gorge and Kalavryta
Greece Ios, Sikinos and Folegandros islands
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Sundominlahti Bay and Söderfjärden
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Ahmasjärvi lake
Finland Litokaira
Finland Valtavaara-Pyhävaara
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Finland Närängänvaara-Virmajoki-Romevaara
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Riisitunturi
Finland Luosto
Finland Kevo
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Ukraine Cape Martiyan
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Syra Pogonya mire
Ukraine Petropavlivs'kyj lyman
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Udaj river valley
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Mzha river valley
France Marais de Sacy
France Marais de Fontenay-le-Vicomte et d'Itteville
France Col de l'Escrinet
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Norway Kjørholmane seabird reserve
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Federseeried
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtuguz Lake
France Montagne de la Serre
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Austria Hohe Tauern National Park
Ukraine KardashinskI mires
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Austria Inn valley between Stams and Haiming
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Juortanansalo
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Germany Elbe lowlands near Bertingen
Kyrgyzstan Karkyra Valley
Kazakhstan Batpakkol lake
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Karatal River
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Desert Hot suitable breeding
Desert Hot suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 5000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Other impacts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Motacilla alba. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/09/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/09/2020.