White-throated Dipper Cinclus cinclus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 35,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 35,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 700000-1699999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.1 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 131,000-292,000 pairs, which equates to 261,000-584,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.35% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 740,000-1,700,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 12.3 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extinct Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tunisia V Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Mount Bazar-Duzu
Azerbaijan Mount Giamysh
Azerbaijan Mount Shahdag
Romania Trascău Mountains
Romania Rarău Mountains - Giumalău
Sweden Färnebofjärden
Poland Przemysl Plateau
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Tatra mountains
Poland Slupia River Valley
Poland Gorce mountains
Greece Mount Oiti
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Mounts Orliakas and Tsourgiakas
Greece Apsalos and Moglenitsa gorges
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Mount Chelmos (Aroania)
Greece Mount Erymanthos
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinountas gorge
Greece Vouraïkos gorge and Kalavryta
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Nuuksio
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Kevo
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Hungary Aggtelek Karst
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Haute Soule : Massif Forestier, Gorges d'Holzarte et d'Olhadubi
France Haute Soule : Forêt des Arbailles
France Haute Soule : Forêt d'Irraty, Organbidexka et Pic des Escaliers
France Rive Gauche de la Vallée d'Aspe et Pic d'Anie
France Hautes Vallées d'Aspe et d'Ossau
France Eth Turoun des Aureys
France Pènes du Moulle de Jaut
France Haute Soule : massif de la Pierre-St-Martin.
France Pic de l'Estibet et Mondragon
France Haute Cize : Pic d'Errozate et Forêt d'Orion
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Forêt de la Reine
France Parc National des Cévennes
France Forêts de Thiérache : Trelon, Fourmies, Hirson et St-Michel
United Kingdom Darnaway and Lethen Forest
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Norway Vorma
Austria Steinfeld
Austria Vienna forest
Austria Pielachtal
Austria Wachau
Austria Southern Waldviertel
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Lower Kamp valley
Austria Niederösterreichische Randalpen
Austria Ötscher-Dürrenstein
Austria Freiwald
Austria Bohemian forest and Mühl valley
Austria Lower course of the Traun
Austria Salzach valley
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Austria Hohe Tauern National Park
Austria Styrian Enns valley
Austria Niedere Tauern
Austria Nockberge National Park
Austria Kaisergebirge
Austria Tyrolian Lech valley
Austria Silvretta and Verwall
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Ammersee
Germany Wahner Heide
Germany Bayerischer Wald National Park with Arber region and Hohem Bogen
Germany Westerzgebirge around Carlsfeld
Germany Erzgebirgskamm near Satzung
Germany Eastern Erzgebirge around Fürstenau
Germany Sächsische Schweiz National Park
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Sennelager training area
Germany North-eastern lower Harz mountains
Germany Northern Steigerwald
Germany Knüll
Germany Northern Black Forest, east of the Murg
Russia (European) Yamantau mountain
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Forêt de Jugny
France Forêt de Châtillon et environs
France Arrière Côte de Dijon et de Beaune
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Val de Chiers et environs de Spincourt
France Massif du Canigou-Carança
France Parc National du Mercantour
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Parc National de la Vanoise
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arasbaran Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Alborz-e Markazi Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lar River Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Golestan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Oshtrankuh Protected Area
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte
Austria Western Waldviertel
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Austria Styrian Joglland
Austria Villacher Alpe-Dobratsch
Austria Lower valley of the Gail
Austria Karwendel
Kazakhstan Kenshektau Mountains
Slovenia Pohorje
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Luosto
Finland Ruunaa
Germany Harz National Park
Germany Middle Fulda valley
Germany Northern Black Forest
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Our
Poland Karkonosze Mountains
Poland Beskid Zywiecki Mountains
Poland Babia Gora Mountain
Poland Beskid Niski Mountains
Poland Beskid Slaski Mountains
Poland Poprad Site
Poland Sudety Wałbrzysko-Kamiennogorskie Mountains

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Cinclus cinclus. Downloaded from on 22/10/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 22/10/2020.