LC
White-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon lepturus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 161,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 229,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.1 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number >c.50,000 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1992), while the population in Japan has been estimated at <c.50 individuals on migration (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to predation by invasive species.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
American Samoa N Extant Yes
Angola V Extant
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Australia N Extant
Bahamas N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belize N Extant
Benin U Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant Yes
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Brazil N Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant
Canada N Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Chile N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Christmas Island (to Australia) N Extant
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) N Extant Yes
Colombia N Extant
Comoros N Extant
Cook Islands N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire U Extant
Cuba N Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Fiji N Extant Yes
French Guiana U Extant
French Polynesia N Extant
Gabon U Extant
Ghana V Extant
Grenada N Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) U Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Guyana U Extant
Haiti N Extant
High Seas N Extant Yes
Honduras U Extant
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Jamaica N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Kenya N Extant
Liberia V Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives N Extant Yes
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritius N Extant Yes
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nauru N Extant
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant
New Zealand V Extant
Nigeria U Extant
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Palau N Extant Yes
Panama V Extant
Philippines N Extant
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant Yes
Réunion (to France) N Extant Yes
São Tomé e Príncipe N Extant
Seychelles N Extant Yes
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) N Extant
Solomon Islands N Extant
South Africa N Extant
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Barthelemy (to France) N Extant
St Helena (to UK) N Extant Yes
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Martin (to France) N Extant
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Suriname U Extant
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste V Extant
Togo U Extant
Tonga N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) N Extant
USA N Extant Yes
Vanuatu N Extant
Venezuela U Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
French Polynesia Manui, Kamaka, Makaroa
French Polynesia Hatu iti
Mauritius Round Island
French Southern Territories Europa
Seychelles Aride Island Special Reserve
Seychelles Cousin Island Special Reserve
Seychelles Cousine island
Seychelles Aldabra Special Reserve
St Helena (to UK) Boatswainbird Island
Indonesia Pulau Manuk
Puerto Rico (to USA) Acantilados del Noroeste
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Fish Ponds and Crossing Place Trail, Middle Caicos
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Turks Bank Seabird Cays
Bermuda (to UK) Cooper's Island and Castle Islands
Bahamas Great Inagua
Bahamas Southern Abaco
Bahamas Long Island and Hog Cay
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Saba
Bahamas North Atlantic Abaco Cays
Bahamas Graham's Harbour
Bahamas Exuma Cays Land and Sea Park
Bahamas Shroud Cay
Bahamas Conception Island National Park
Martinique (to France) Rocher du Diamant
Bahamas Booby Rocks and Pirates Bay
Guadeloupe (to France) Pointe des Châteaux
Guadeloupe (to France) Falaises du Nord Grande-Terre
Dominica Point Des Foux
Dominica L'llet
Antigua and Barbuda Redonda
Virgin Islands (to USA) Saba Island and Cays
Haiti Coquillage - Pointe Est
Christmas Island (to Australia) Christmas Island
French Polynesia Crêtes et pentes du Mont Marau
Palau Peleliu
Marshall Islands Bikar Atoll
USA Kauai Forests and Uplands
Kiribati Nikumaroro (Gardner Island)
Kiribati Teraina (Washington Island)
Kiribati Tabuaeran (Fanning Island)
Kiribati Kiritimati (Christmas Island)
Micronesia, Federated States of Yap Island
Fiji Namenalala
American Samoa National Park of American Samoa - Ta'u
American Samoa West Tutuila
American Samoa National Park of American Samoa - Tutuila
American Samoa Swain's Atoll
French Polynesia Rimatara
French Polynesia Vallée de Avera
French Polynesia Makatea
French Polynesia Vallée d'Opunohu
French Polynesia Mangareva
French Polynesia Hatuta'a
French Polynesia Fatu Huku
French Polynesia Tubuai, Motu Toena
French Polynesia Akamaru island
French Polynesia Mangareva
American Samoa Rose Atoll
French Polynesia Hatu iti
French Polynesia Hiva Oa
French Polynesia Ua Huka
French Polynesia Ilots rocheux de Ua Pou
French Polynesia Bora Bora
French Polynesia Huahine
French Polynesia Maiao
French Polynesia Maupiti
French Polynesia Mehetia
French Polynesia Moorea
French Polynesia Tahaea (OR IS THIS TAHANEA?)
Fiji Vatu-i-Ra
Palau Rock Islands
Palau Fana Island
St Helena (to UK) Ascension Island: mainland and stacks - Marine
French Southern Territories Europa - Marine
Mauritius Round Island / Serpent Island - Marine
Christmas Island (to Australia) Christmas Island - Marine
Seychelles Aldabra atoll / Cosmoledo atoll - Marine
Indonesia Pulau Manuk - Marine
Seychelles Aride island - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Western 74 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Western 30 - Marine
Seychelles Indian Ocean, Western 33 - Marine
Mauritius Indian Ocean, Western 54 - Marine
Bermuda (to UK) Cooper's Island and Castle Islands Nature Reserve - Marine
Bahamas Conception Island - Marine
Micronesia, Federated States of Kosrae Marine
Marshall Islands Enewetok Atoll
Marshall Islands Bokak Atoll
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Wake Island
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Howland Island
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Johnston Atoll
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Palmyra Atoll
Cook Islands Aitutaki
Cook Islands Mangaia
Cook Islands Rarotonga Cloud Forest
Cook Islands Takitumu Conservation Area, Rarotonga
Fiji Ogea
Kiribati Rawaki (Phoenix Island)
Kiribati Orona Atoll (Hull Island)
New Caledonia (to France) Île Walpole
Tonga Niuafo'ou
Tonga Fonualei
Tonga Late
Tonga 'Ata Island
Tokelau (to New Zealand) Nukunonu
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Uracus
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Maug Islands
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Guguan Island
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) Futuna
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) Alofi
American Samoa Tutuila Marine

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Phaethon lepturus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/12/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/12/2020.