LC
White-tailed Sea-eagle Haliaeetus albicilla



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2015 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2005 Least Concern
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 43,200,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 58,400,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 20000-49999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 17.5 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 9,000-12,300 breeding pairs, equating to 17,900-24,500 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms 50-74% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 24,200-49,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. It is placed in the band 20,000-49,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is increasing locally owing to conservation measures such as protecting eyries, providing safe (non-poisoned) food and re-introductions to certain areas such as Bavaria (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). The European population is increasing (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria V Extinct
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bangladesh V Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium V Extant
Bhutan V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus V Extant
Czech Republic N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt V Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) U Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy V Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes Yes
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Myanmar V Extant
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories V Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal V Extinct Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia V Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
Spain V Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Tajikistan U Extant
Thailand V Extant
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom R Extant Yes
USA V Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Riverine forests on the Danube east of Vienna
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Belarus Čyrvony Bor
Belarus Polesie Reserve
Belarus Sialiec
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty
Bulgaria Belene Islands Complex
Bulgaria Ivailovgrad Reservoir
Bulgaria Kalimok Complex
Bulgaria Kamchia Complex
Bulgaria Lakat Island
Bulgaria Ropotamo Complex
Bulgaria Srebarna
Croatia Cesma River Carp Fishponds
Croatia Grudnjak and Nasice Carp Fishponds
Croatia Lower Posavina
Croatia Podunavlje and Lower Podravlje
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Croatia Pokuplje Basin
Croatia Spacva Basin
Croatia Upper Drava River
Czech Republic Nove Mlyny middle reservoir
Czech Republic Pálava
Czech Republic Trebonsko (Trebon region)
Denmark Arreskov Sø
Denmark Hostrup Sø, Assenholm Mose and Felsted Vestermark
Denmark Lillebælt
Denmark Maribo lakes
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Mouth of the Emajõgi river and Piirissaar island
Estonia Väinameri
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
France Barthes de l'Adour
Greenland (to Denmark) Ikkattoq fjord and islands
Hungary Béda–Karapancsa
Hungary Bihar Plain
Hungary Dráva
Hungary Gemenc
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Inner Somogy
Hungary Kis-Sárrét
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Hungary Middle Tisza
Iran, Islamic Republic of Abbas-abad dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lisar Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Gaz and Rud-i-Hara deltas
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Iraq Haur Al Rayan and Umm Osbah
Iraq Haur Al Sa'adiyah
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Zharsor-Urkash Salt Lakes
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds
Latvia Skrunda fish-ponds
Lithuania Blinstrubiskis forest with neighbouring fish-pond areas
Lithuania Grybaulia fish-farm
Lithuania Kauno Marios water reservoir & eastern coastal zone
Lithuania Lithuanian part of the Curonian Spit
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon
Moldova Royal Forest
Nepal Bardia National Park
Nepal Chitwan National Park
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage
Norway Froan
Norway Smøla archipelago
Norway Solvær archipelago
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Barlinek Forest
Poland Barycz river valley
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Drawa River Site
Poland Forest at Drawa River
Poland Forest at Gwda River
Poland Goleniow Forest
Poland Ilawa Forest
Poland Insko Site
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Lower Silesia Forests
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Notec Forest
Poland Odra riverine forests
Poland Pasleka river valley
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Poland Stobrawa Watershed
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Poland Warmia Site
Poland Witnica-Debno Site
Poland Wkrzanska Forest
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Braţul Borcea
Romania Calafat - Ciuperceni - Dunăre
Romania Confluenţa Jiu - Dunăre
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Dunăre - Ostroave
Romania Gruia - Gârla Mare
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu
Russia (European) Akhtubinsk wetland
Russia (European) Archedinskiye sands
Russia (European) Bel'skaya flood-plain
Russia (European) Birskaya flood-plain of river Belaya
Russia (European) Bogdinsko-Baskunchakski
Russia (European) Bulgarski
Russia (European) Cheremshanski Bay of Kuybyshev Reservoir
Russia (European) Curonian Bay
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Khoper river near Il'men' lake
Russia (European) Ivinski flood-plain (Verkhnesvirskoye reservoir)
Russia (European) Kamsko-Yayvenski wetland
Russia (European) Kandalaksha Bay
Russia (European) Karakulinskaya flood-plain
Russia (European) Kazachka
Russia (European) Khoper Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Khvalynski National Park
Russia (European) Kizlyar Bay
Russia (European) Kumikushski wetland
Russia (European) Large liman
Russia (European) Migulinskiye sands
Russia (European) Neman river Delta and the coast of the Curonian Bay
Russia (European) Nizhnekamskaya flood-plain
Russia (European) North part of Volgogradski reservoir
Russia (European) Ostrovnoi
Russia (European) Pechoro-Ilychski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Pikhtovka fishponds
Russia (European) Ponoiskaya depression
Russia (European) Rakhinski forest
Russia (European) Rybinsk reservoir
Russia (European) Samarskaya Luka
Russia (European) Saraly
Russia (European) Schuch'i Gori area
Russia (European) Shcherbakovskaya bend of Volga river
Russia (European) Siz'menski flood-plain of Sheksna reservoir
Russia (European) Surski reservoir
Russia (European) Suskanski Bay of Kuybyshev Resrvoir
Russia (European) Tsimlyanskiye sands
Russia (European) Veselovskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Vicinity of the Vozhe lake and Charonda marshes
Russia (European) Vodlozero
Russia (European) Watershed of Kazanka and Shoshma rivers
Russia (European) Western coast of Beloye lake
Russia (European) Yugyd Va
Russia (European) Zavidovo Reserve, including Lotoshinski, Klinski and Diatlovo fish ponds
Russia (European) Zhigulevski Nature Reserve
Serbia Bosutska forest
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje
Serbia Karadjordjevo
Serbia Koviljski rit
Serbia Usce Save u Dunav
Slovakia River Danube flood-plain
Slovenia River Drava
Slovenia River Mura
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Sweden Bay of Brå – Hävringe Island
Sweden Bay of Kil
Sweden Bay of Strandstugu
Sweden Bay of Svensksund
Sweden Coastal area (including seaside meadows) of Eastern Öland
Sweden Färnebofjärden
Sweden Gräsö Archipelago
Sweden Holmöarna Archipelago
Sweden Lake Åsnen
Sweden Lake Hallbo
Sweden Lake Solgen
Sweden Lövsta Bight – Björn Archipelago
Sweden Muddus
Sweden River Ume Delta and Plains
Sweden Sjaunja
Sweden Western part of Lake Mälaren
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Teterivs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Forests in Dnipro and Desna valleys
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Kozats'ki islands)
Ukraine Kanivs'kyi Nature Reserve
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Rzhyschivs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Stanychno-Lugans'ke fish-farm
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Subarctic suitable breeding
Grassland Tundra suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Negligible declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Negligible declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Industrial & military effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Negligible declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2018) Species factsheet: Haliaeetus albicilla. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2018. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2018) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2018.