White Stork Ciconia ciconia


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 52,700,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 61,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 16.5 - - -

Population justification: The global population size is estimated at 700,000-704,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 224,000-247,000 pairs, which equates to 447,000-495,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations are decreasing or stable (Wetlands International 2015). The population in Europe is estimated to have undergone a moderate increase between 1980 and 2013 (EBCC 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda V Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Congo V Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon N Extant
Gambia V Extant
Georgia N Extant
Germany N Extant Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho N Extant
Liberia V Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Central Asian) V Extant
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant
São Tomé e Príncipe V Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone V Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Helena (to UK) V Extant
Sudan N Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Armenia Metsamor
Armenia Noravank
Austria Lower Mur valley
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Belarus Bielaviežškaja Pušča
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Bulgaria Kalimok Complex
Bulgaria Mesta Valley
Bulgaria Obnova Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Palakaria
Bulgaria Rupite
Bulgaria Zlatiata
Croatia Lower Posavina
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Croatia Pokuplje Basin
Czechia Bzenecka Doubrava-Straznicke Pomoravi
Czechia Confluence of the Morava (March) and Dyje (Thaya) rivers - Tvrdonicko
Czechia Hermansky stav-Odra-Poolsi wetlands
Czechia Pálava
Czechia Poodri
Czechia Trebonsko (Trebon region)
Estonia Väinameri
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France La Dombes
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
Germany Aisch-Regnitz-Grund
Germany Aland-Elbe lowlands
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Aukrug Nature Park
Germany Bastau lowlands
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Danube valley Scheer-Zwiefaltendorf
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Drennhauser Hinterdeich
Germany Drömling (Niedersachsen)
Germany Drömling (Sachsen-Anhalt)
Germany Duvenstedter Brook
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Elbe lowlands Jerichow
Germany Elbe valley of Mecklenburg
Germany Elzniederung between Kenzingen and Rust
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Farmlands Prignitz with Stepenitz valley (BB) and eastern Grabow (MV)
Germany Federseeried
Germany Fiener Bruch
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Island of Usedom
Germany Kammbachniederung
Germany Kinzig- und Schutterniederung between Niederschopfheim and Kehl
Germany Landgraben and Dumme lowlands
Germany Lower Aller lowlands
Germany Lower Elbe valley
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Lower Röder valley and Colmnitzer Platte
Germany Lowlands of the Rivers Eider, Treene and Sorge
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Mecklenburgische Schweiz
Germany Neckar oxbows in the Hessian Ried
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Oberlausitz heathland and fishponds biosphere reserve
Germany Oberlausitzer Gefilde near Weißenberg
Germany Obersuhl lowlands
Germany Oker valley near Vienenburg
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Recknitz and Trebel valley
Germany Renchniederung
Germany Rodachaue / Itzgrund / Oberes Maintal incl. Nassanger near Trieb and surrounding gravel pits
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Schwalmaue around Schwalmstadt
Germany Sewage farm Freiburg
Germany Spreewald
Germany Uckermark lake region
Germany Upper and middle reaches of river Krückau with tributaries
Germany Wahner Heide
Germany Weserstaustufe Schlüsselburg
Germany Wetterau
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Evros delta
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Thessaly plain
India Nandur Madhmeshwar Wildlife Sanctuary
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Zaribar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes
Iraq Baquba wetlands
Israel Carmel coast
Israel Cliffs of Zin and the Negev highlands
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Israel Northern Arava valley
Israel Northern lower Jordan valley
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Israel Western Negev
Israel Zevulun valley
Italy Biviere and Plain of Gela
Italy Simeto mouth and middle course and Biviere di Lentini
Jordan Khirbat al Samra (sewage works)
Jordan Maghtas - Sweimeh
Latvia Gauja national park
Latvia Razna
Lebanon Aammiq wetland
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Alzette
Luxembourg Valley of the Syre
North Macedonia Pelagonia
Oman Masirah island
Palestinian Authority Territories Wadi Al-Qof - Beit Kahel
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Elblag Height
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Lower Bug river valley
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Pasleka river valley
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Warmia Site
Portugal Castro Marim
Portugal Castro Verde plains
Portugal Montesinho and Nogueira mountains
Portugal Mourão, Moura e Barrancos
Portugal Paul do Taipal
Portugal Ria Formosa (Faro lagoon)
Portugal River Guadiana
Portugal Sabôr and Maçãs
Portugal Sado estuary
Portugal Serra do Caldeirão
Portugal South-west coast of Portugal
Portugal Tejo estuary
Romania Avrig - Scorei - Făgăraş
Romania Braţul Borcea
Romania Calafat - Ciuperceni - Dunăre
Romania Câmpia Nirului - Valea lerului
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Ciuc Depression
Romania Confluenţa Jiu - Dunăre
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Lake Strachina
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel
Romania Olt valley
Romania Olteniţa - Ulmeni
Romania Prut river flood-plain - Vlădeşti - Frumuşiţa
Romania Râului Negru valley
Romania Suhaia
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Serbia Carska bara
Serbia Gornje Potamisje
Serbia Obedska bara
Serbia Sitnica
Serbia Srednje Potamišje
Slovakia Horna Orava
Slovakia Kosice valley
Slovakia Laborecka upland
Slovakia Medzibodrozie
Slovakia Poiplie
South Sudan Sudd (Bahr-el-Jebel system)
Spain Alcántara reservoir-Cuatro Lugares
Spain Alcudia valley and mountain range
Spain Alto Lozoya-La Pedriza
Spain Brozas-Membrío
Spain Cabras, Aljibe and Montecoche mountain range
Spain Campo Arañuelo-Valdecañas reservoir
Spain Canalizos mountain range (Saceruela)
Spain Castronuño-Zamora
Spain Ceuta
Spain Cortados del Jarama
Spain El Escorial-San Martín de Valdeiglesias
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon
Spain La Limia
Spain Malpartida de Cáceres-Arroyo de la Luz
Spain Olivenza-La Albuera
Spain Oropesa plains
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano
Spain River Cega-Tierra de Pinares-Cantalejo
Spain River Moros
Spain Segovia
Spain Talamanca-Camarma
Spain Tarifa
Spain Tietar valley
Spain Trujillo-Torrecillas de la Tiesa
Spain Vegas del Alagón
Spain Villafáfila
Syria Golan Heights
Tanzania Ngorongoro Conservation Area
Turkey Amanos Mountains
Turkey Balıkdamı
Turkey Bismil Plain
Turkey Bosphorus
Turkey Ceyhan Delta
Turkey Eşmekaya Marshes
Turkey Göksu Delta
Turkey İğneada Forests
Turkey Sarıyar Reservoir
Uzbekistan Balykchi Fish Farm
Uzbekistan Dalverzin State Forestry and Hunting Management Area
Uzbekistan Mirzaaral Tugay
Uzbekistan Tuyabuguz Reservoir
Yemen Ta'izz wadis

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland major non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 3500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Ciconia ciconia. Downloaded from on 14/10/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 14/10/2019.