White-spectacled Bulbul Pycnonotus xanthopygos


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 4,540,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 100000-399999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 6,000-18,000 pairs, which equates to 12,000-36,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.10% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 120,000-360,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The population is estimated to be increasing following a long-term range expansion, facilitated by urban and agricultural development (del Hoyo et al. 2005). The European population trend is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Egypt N Extant
Iraq U Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Israel Northern lower Jordan valley
Israel Judean desert
Israel Cliffs of Zin and the Negev highlands
Jordan Dana
Palestinian Authority Territories Jerusalem wilderness
Saudi Arabia Jabal Aja and Northern Ha'il
Saudi Arabia Hawtat Bani Tamim
Saudi Arabia National Wildlife Research Center and environs, Taif
Saudi Arabia Wadi Turabah and Jabal Ibrahim
Saudi Arabia Shallal ad-Dahna
Saudi Arabia Al-Habrow al-Arabi
Saudi Arabia Wadi Jawwah
Yemen Ma'rib - Naqil Fardah - Baraqish
Yemen Mahwit
Yemen Al-Kadan area
Yemen Jabal Bura
Yemen Jabal Sumarah
Yemen High mountains of Ibb
Yemen Mafraq al-Mukha
Yemen Wadi Hajar
Yemen Wadi al-Birayn
Saudi Arabia Raydah escarpment
United Arab Emirates Wadi Wurayah

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Wetlands (inland) Freshwater Springs and Oases suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 3200 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Pycnonotus xanthopygos. Downloaded from on 04/03/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 04/03/2021.