CR
White-shouldered Ibis Pseudibis davisoni



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
A3cd+4cd A3cd+4cd; C2a(i) A3cd+4cd; C2a(i); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Critically Endangered A3cd+4cd
2015 Critically Endangered A3cd+4cd
2013 Critically Endangered A3cd+4cd
2012 Critically Endangered A3cd+4cd
2011 Critically Endangered A3c
2010 Critically Endangered A4c
2009 Critically Endangered A3c; C2a(i)
2008 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,010,000 medium
Number of locations 6-10 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 670 good estimated 2013
Population trend Decreasing medium suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 80-100 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 80-100 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7 - - -

Population justification: The Indonesian population was estimated at 30-100 individuals but has apparently declined. Nationwide coordinated surveys for the species in Cambodia recorded a total of 973 individuals in 2013 (Anon. 2013). The global population is therefore estimated at at minimum of 1,000 individuals and 670 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The species declined precipitously during the 20th century having been relatively common in the early part of that period. Until very recently its global status has been poorly monitored and there is insufficient evidence to estimate a rate of decline. Widespread habitat conversion is now underway or projected across most of the species's range, which is likely to result in extremely rapid declines in the next 10-20 years. Two of three known sites where the highest numbers have been recorded are currently not under any formal legal protection and are therefore particularly vulnerable to being targeted for conversion.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Cambodia N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Possibly Extinct Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Possibly Extinct Yes
Myanmar N Possibly Extinct Yes
Thailand N Extinct Yes
Vietnam N Extinct Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cambodia Ang Tropeang Thmor
Cambodia Lomphat
Cambodia Mekong River from Kratie to Lao PDR
Cambodia Stung Sen / Santuk / Baray
Cambodia Upper Srepok Catchment
Cambodia Upper Stung Sen Catchment
Cambodia Veal Srongae
Cambodia Western Siem Pang
Indonesia Lahan Basah Mahakam Tengah
Indonesia Lembah Sungai Negara
Indonesia Ulu Barito
Laos Xe Kong Plains
Vietnam Kien Luong
Vietnam Nam Cat Tien

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Gathering terrestrial plants - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Species disturbance
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Trend Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Pseudibis davisoni. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2017.