VU
White-necked Petrel Pterodroma cervicalis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - D2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Vulnerable D2
2016 Vulnerable D2
2012 Vulnerable D2
2010 Vulnerable D2
2008 Vulnerable D2
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 75,800,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1 medium
Number of locations 2-3 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 100000 medium unknown 1988
Population trend Increasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15.6 - - -

Population justification: The total population has been estimated at c.100,000 mature individuals (1988), roughly equivalent to 150,000 total individuals.

Trend justification: The population is thought to be increasing (Brooke 2004).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
American Samoa N Extant Yes
Australia N Extant Yes
Cook Islands N Extant Yes
Fiji N Extant Yes
French Polynesia N Extant Yes
French Southern Territories U Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Kiribati U Extant
Marshall Islands U Extant
Mexico N Extant Yes
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Nauru U Extant
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant Yes
New Zealand N Extant Yes
Niue (to New Zealand) N Extant Yes
Norfolk Island (to Australia) N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea U Extant
Samoa U Extant
Solomon Islands U Extant
Tokelau (to New Zealand) U Extant
Tonga U Extant
Tuvalu U Extant
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Vanuatu N Extant Yes
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
New Zealand Macauley & Haszard Islands
Norfolk Island (to Australia) Phillip Island (Norfolk Island)
Vanuatu Vanua Lava, Mount Sereama
New Zealand Kermadec Islands (Macauley Island)
New Zealand North Eastern North Island (offshore)
New Zealand Kermadec (offshore)
Norfolk Island (to Australia) Norfolk Island / Phillip Island - Marine
Fiji East Kadavu Passage
Vanuatu Vanua Lava Marine
Vanuatu Mota Lava

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 50 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Unknown Past Impact
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Capra hircus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Unknown Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Oryctolagus cuniculus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus exulans Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus norvegicus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Sus domesticus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Pterodroma cervicalis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/09/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/09/2022.