VU
White-naped Crane Antigone vipio



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Antigone vipio (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Grus.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde
2012 Vulnerable A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde
2008 Vulnerable A2b,c,d; A3b,c,d; A4b,c,d
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,400,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 905,000 medium
Number of locations 10-20 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 3700-4500 medium estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13 - - -

Population justification: The total population is estimated at 6250-6750 individuals, based on recent counts of 500-1,000 individuals wintering in China, and an estimate of 5,750 wintering in Korea/Japan (based on coordinated counts from winters 2012-2013, 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 (L Kisup and Y. Haraguchi pers comm., Harris and Mirande in prep.). Double counting is possible between the Korean sites and Japanese sites due to movement of birds during the wintering period, and counts therefore require close coordination.

Trend justification: Although accurate data on population trends are lacking, numbers are thought likely to be in rapid decline owing to habitat loss in both the breeding and wintering grounds, as well as other confounding factors such as hunting, disturbance, nest predation and pollution.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan V Extant
Mongolia N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
Taiwan (China) V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
China (mainland) Bacha Dao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Bayan Obo Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Beidaihe
China (mainland) Chen Hu Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dalai Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dali Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dongting Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Fang Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Heiyupao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Holqin Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Huanzidong
China (mainland) Huihe Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Hukou Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Huzhong Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Kaifeng Liuyuankou Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Keluo He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Laotieshan
China (mainland) Lianhuanhu Waterbird Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Longgan Hu Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Melmeg (Momege) Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Naoli He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Nuomin-Bila He-Dayangshu
China (mainland) Poyang Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Qagan Nur
China (mainland) Qihulin He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Qindeli Sturgeon Reserve
China (mainland) Qixing He Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Sanjiang Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Shengjin Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong
China (mainland) Shuifeng Reservoir and middle reaches of Yalu Jiang
China (mainland) Sihong Wetland of Hongze Hu
China (mainland) Tailai Dongfanghong
China (mainland) Ulgai
China (mainland) Xianghai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xilin Gol Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary
China (mainland) Yancheng Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yangdali Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yubei Huanghe Gudao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Zhalong Nature Reserve
Japan Izumi, Takaono
Mongolia Buir Lake
Mongolia Dashinchilen Bayan Lake
Mongolia Ganga Lakes
Mongolia Khan Khentii Strictly Protected Area
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Khar Yamaat Nature Reserve
Mongolia Khukh Lake
Mongolia Maikhant Mountain
Mongolia Mongol Daguur
Mongolia Nomrog
Mongolia Ogii Lake
Mongolia Onon-Balj
Mongolia Shaazan Lake
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes
Mongolia Teshigiin Olon Lakes
Mongolia Tsengeleg Lakes
Mongolia Turgen Tsagaan, Zegst, Tuulaitiyn Burd Lakes
Mongolia Ugtam Nature Reserve
Mongolia Uvs Lake
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers
North Korea Amrok River estuary
North Korea Chongchon River estuary (including Mundok Nature Reserve)
North Korea Kumya Bay
North Korea Lake Kwangpo
North Korea Lake Manpo and Lake Bonpo
North Korea Onchon field
North Korea Ongjin Bay
North Korea Orangchon River estuary
North Korea Panmun field
Russia (Asian) Aginskiye lakes
Russia (Asian) Amur valley near Blagoveshensk
Russia (Asian) Argun' river
Russia (Asian) Arkhara lowlands
Russia (Asian) Bain-Tsaganskiye lakes
Russia (Asian) Khanka plain
Russia (Asian) Lower Tumen river
Russia (Asian) Middle Onon
Russia (Asian) Torey lakes
South Korea Cheolwon basin
South Korea Daeseongdong and Panmunjeom marshes
South Korea Gumi Haepyeong
South Korea Han-gang estuary
South Korea Junam reservoir
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary
South Korea Sihwa-ho lake
South Korea Upo swamp
South Korea Yeonchon

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Historical
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Antigone vipio. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/12/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/12/2017.