White Ibis Eudocimus albus


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 12,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 13,800,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 210000-360000 poor suspected 2011
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.57 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number 210,000-360,000 mature individuals (Wetlands International 2020).

Trend justification: The population in Central and South America is thought to be stable, while the population in North America is increasing (Rosenberg et al. 2019; Wetlands International 2020). In North America, the population has increased by about 65% over the past three generations (23 years, Pardieck et al. 2018). Overall, the population is here tentatively assessed as stable.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bahamas N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant Yes Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Colombia N Extant Yes
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant Yes
Dominican Republic N Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant Yes
El Salvador N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant Yes
Haiti N Extant Yes
Honduras N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Jamaica N Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes Yes
Nicaragua N Extant Yes Yes
Panama N Extant Yes
Peru N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) V Extant
Trinidad and Tobago V Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Venezuela N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Bahamas Harrold and Wilson Ponds National Park
Bahamas Long Island and Hog Cay
Bahamas Grog Pond
Bahamas North Atlantic Abaco Cays
Panama Taborcillo Island and Chame Bay
Panama Chimán Islands
Panama Congo and Cucunatí Estuaries
Nicaragua Miskito Keys and terrestrial landscape
Nicaragua Juan Venado Island
Dominican Republic Jaragua National Park
Costa Rica Palo Verde Wetlands
Bahamas Mangrove Cay
Cuba Las Picuas - Del Cristo Cay
Cuba Cayo Sabinal, Ballenatos y Manglares de la Bahía de Nuevitas
Cuba Cienaga de Lanier y Sur de la Isla de la Juventud
Cuba Humedal Sur de Sancti Spiritus
Mexico Pantanos de Centla
USA Northern Everglades
USA Battery Island
Mexico Istmo de Tehuantepec - Mar Muerto
Mexico Istmo de Tehuantepec
USA Barataria Terrebonne
USA Hillsborough Bay
USA Atchafalaya Delta
USA Coastal Prairie
USA Lavaca Bay Spoils
USA North Deer Island
Mexico Lagunas del Playón de Mismaloya
Mexico Sistema Lagunar Superior-Inferior
Mexico Laguna de Tamiahua
Mexico Ichka' Ansijo
Mexico Complejo de Presas de Río Fuerte
Mexico Marismas Nacionales
Colombia El Encanto de Guanapalo
Mexico Centro de Veracruz
Mexico Laguna Cuyutlán-Estero Palo Verde
Mexico La Encrucijada
Mexico Los Petenes
Mexico Sian Ka'an
Mexico Ría Celestún
Mexico Ría Lagartos
Mexico Bahía Santa María
Colombia Bojonawi

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 50 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Eudocimus albus. Downloaded from on 27/11/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 27/11/2022.