White Ibis Eudocimus albus


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency low
Land-mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 12,900,000 km2 medium
Extent of Occurrence (non-breeding) 13,800,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 210000-360000 mature individuals poor suspected 2011
Population trend stable - suspected -
Generation length 7.57 years - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number 210,000-360,000 mature individuals (Wetlands International 2020).

Trend justification: The population in Central and South America is thought to be stable, while the population in North America is increasing (Rosenberg et al. 2019; Wetlands International 2020). In North America, the population has increased by about 65% over the past three generations (23 years, Pardieck et al. 2018). Overall, the population is here tentatively assessed as stable.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Bahamas extant native yes
Belize extant native yes yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) extant native yes
Colombia extant native yes
Costa Rica extant native yes
Cuba extant native yes
Dominican Republic extant native yes
Ecuador extant native yes
El Salvador extant native yes
Guatemala extant native yes
Haiti extant native yes
Honduras extant native yes yes yes
Jamaica extant native yes
Mexico extant native yes yes
Nicaragua extant native yes yes
Panama extant native yes
Peru extant native yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) extant vagrant
Trinidad and Tobago extant vagrant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) extant native yes
USA extant native yes yes yes
Venezuela extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Panama Congo and Cucunatí Estuaries
Panama Taborcillo Island and Chame Bay
Panama Chimán Islands
Costa Rica Palo Verde Wetlands
Cuba Humedal Sur de Sancti Spiritus
USA Northern Everglades
USA Battery Island
USA Barataria Terrebonne
USA Hillsborough Bay
USA Atchafalaya Delta
USA Coastal Prairie
USA Lavaca Bay Spoils
USA North Deer Island
Mexico Centro de Veracruz
Mexico La Encrucijada
Mexico Los Petenes
Mexico Sian Ka'an
Mexico Ichka' Ansijo
Mexico Ría Lagartos
Mexico Istmo de Tehuantepec - Mar Muerto
Mexico Laguna de Tamiahua

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 50 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Eudocimus albus. Downloaded from on 30/11/2023.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 30/11/2023.