LC
White Ibis Eudocimus albus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 12,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 13,800,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9.2 - - -

Trend justification: The overall population trend is stable, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (589% increase over 40 years, equating to a 62% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007) Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Bahamas N Extant Yes
Barbados V Extant Yes
Belize N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant Yes
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Colombia N Extant Yes
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant Yes
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Dominica V Extant Yes
Dominican Republic N Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant Yes
El Salvador N Extant Yes
French Guiana V Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant Yes
Guyana N Extant Yes
Haiti N Extant Yes
Honduras N Extant Yes
Jamaica N Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant Yes
Peru N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant Yes
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) V Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Costa Rica Palo Verde Wetlands
Cuba Humedal Sur de Sancti Spiritus
Mexico Complejo de Presas de Río Fuerte
Mexico Istmo de Tehuantepec-Mar Muerto
Mexico Laguna de Tamiahua
Mexico Lagunas del Playón de Mismaloya
Mexico Marismas Nacionales
Mexico Pantanos de Centla
Mexico Sisal-Chuburna
Nicaragua Juan Venado Island
Nicaragua Miskito Keys and terrestrial landscape
Panama Chimán Islands
Panama Congo and Cucunatí Estuaries
Panama Taborcillo Island and Chame Bay
USA Atchafalaya Delta
USA Barataria Terrebonne
USA Battery Island
USA Coastal Prairie
USA Hillsborough Bay
USA Lavaca Bay Spoils
USA North Deer Island
USA Northern Everglades

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 50 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Eudocimus albus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/04/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/04/2019.