White-faced Storm-petrel Pelagodroma marina


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 281,000,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 104,000,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2004
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15.4 - - -

Population justification: Brooke (2004) estimated the global population to number at least 4,000,000 individuals. The European population is estimated at 77,800-111,000 pairs, which equates to 156,000-221,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to predation by invasive species. In Europe, the population size is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 46 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
American Samoa V Extant
Argentina V Extant
Australia N Extant Yes
Brazil U Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant
Canada U Extant
Cape Verde N Extant
Chile N Extant
Christmas Island (to Australia) U Extant
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) U Extant
Cook Islands U Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) U Extant
Fiji V Extant Yes
French Polynesia U Extant
French Southern Territories N Extinct Yes
Gambia U Extant
Guinea U Extant
Guinea-Bissau U Extant
Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) N Extant Yes
India V Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of U Extant
Kiribati V Extant
Maldives V Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mauritius V Extant
Morocco V Extant
Mozambique V Extant
Namibia V Extant
Netherlands V Extant
New Caledonia (to France) U Extant
New Zealand N Extant Yes
Niue (to New Zealand) U Extant
Norfolk Island (to Australia) U Extant
Oman V Extant Yes
Pakistan U Extant
Peru N Extant
Pitcairn Islands (to UK) U Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes
Samoa U Extant
Senegal N Extant
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone U Extant
Somalia U Extant
South Africa U Extant
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka V Extant Yes
St Helena (to UK) N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) U Extant
Timor-Leste V Extant
Tokelau (to New Zealand) U Extant
Tonga U Extant
United Kingdom V Extant
Uruguay N Extant Yes
USA V Extant
Vanuatu U Extant
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) U Extant
Western Sahara U Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Spain Lanzarote islets
St Helena (to UK) Inaccessible Island
St Helena (to UK) Nightingale Island group
St Helena (to UK) Gough Island
Portugal Selvagens
Australia Houtman Abrolhos
Australia Recherche Archipelago
Australia Gabo and Tullaberga Islands
Australia Sir Joseph Banks Islands
Australia Nuyts Archipelago
Australia Wedge Island
Australia Chalky, Big Green and Badger Island Groups
Australia Franklin Sound Islands
New Zealand Ruamaahua Aldermen Islands
New Zealand Motunau Island (Plate Island)
New Zealand Bay of Plenty Islands
New Zealand Motunau
New Zealand Rangiauria Pitt Island
New Zealand Mangere
New Zealand Rangatira South East Island
New Zealand Star Keys Motuhope
New Zealand The Sisters Rangitatahi
New Zealand Mercury Islands
New Zealand Herald Islets
New Zealand Maria Island
New Zealand Kermadec Islands (Macauley Island)
New Zealand Kermadec Islands (Meyer Island)
New Zealand Kermadec Islands (Raoul Island (Milne Inlet))
New Zealand Kermadec Islands (Raoul Island) - Western Bay, Denham Bay, Islets
New Zealand Mokohinau Islands
New Zealand Motuopao Island
New Zealand Poor Knights Islands
New Zealand Cavalli Islands
New Zealand Stewart Island / the rest
New Zealand Motumahunga Island
New Zealand Southern Titi Muttonbird Islands
Fiji East Kadavu Passage
New Zealand Meyer & Herald Islands
New Zealand Macauley & Haszard Islands
New Zealand Mokohinau Islands
New Zealand Northern Muttonbird (Titi) Islands
New Zealand Rangitira/South East Island
New Zealand Mangere Island & Little Mangere Island/Tapuaenuku
Portugal Selvagens - Oceânica
New Zealand Horuhoru Rock
New Zealand Northern Titi Muttonbird Islands
New Zealand Ruapuke
New Zealand Moeraki Katiki Point
New Zealand Chatham Islands (nearshore)
New Zealand Chatham (offshore)
Cape Verde Pássaros Islet Integral Natural Reserve
Cape Verde Laje Branca Islet
Cape Verde Ilhéus do Rombo
Cape Verde Branco Islet Integral Natural Reserve

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Mus musculus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Garbage & solid waste Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Pelagodroma marina. Downloaded from on 30/01/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 30/01/2023.