White-faced Partridge Arborophila orientalis


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Mees, G. F. 1996. Geographical variation in birds of Java. Publications of the Nuttall Ornithological Club 26(I-viii): 1-119.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2cd+3cd+4cd; B1ab(ii,iii,v)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd;B1ab(ii,iii,v)
2012 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd;B1ab(ii,iii,v)
2008 Vulnerable A2c; A3c; A4c; B1a+b(ii,iii,v)
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency high
Land-mass type shelf island
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 10,800 km2 medium
Number of locations 6-10 -
Severely fragmented? no -
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 10000-19999 mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend decreasing poor suspected 2002-2012
Rate of change over the past 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 30-49% - - -
Rate of change over the future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 30-49% - - -
Rate of change over the past & future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 30-49% - - -
Generation length 5.4 years - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage of mature individuals in largest subpopulation 1-89% - - -

Population justification: Its population was initially estimated at 1,000-10,000 individuals, but it has subsequently been found at several more sites and may considerably exceed this upper limit. It is restricted to two or three forest blocks, that total an absolute maximum of 225,000 ha of suitable habitat, which, considering home range sizes of c.8-20 ha found in other tropical partridges, suggests that a total of 11,000-28,000 pairs might still be present, but hunting pressure and variable habitat quality could mean that numbers are much lower than this (B. van Balen in litt. 2012). On the basis of this information, its population is conservatively estimated to include 10,000-19,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: Remaining forest continues to face logging pressure and the clearance of fragments is commonplace, whilst the species may also suffer some amount of hunting pressure; hence, it is suspected to be declining rapidly overall.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Indonesia extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Indonesia Dataran Tinggi Hyang
Indonesia Meru Betiri
Indonesia Gunung Raung
Indonesia Gunung Ijen
Malaysia Bintang Range
Malaysia Central Titiwangsa Range

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 500 - 2200 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Trend Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Arborophila orientalis. Downloaded from on 29/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 29/02/2024.