White-faced Ibis Plegadis chihi


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency does not normally occur in forest
Land-mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 32,900,000 km2 medium
Extent of Occurrence (non-breeding) 29,500,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size unknown poor estimated 2009
Population trend increasing - suspected -
Generation length 6.7 years - - -

Population justification: The population is estimated to number 1,200,000 individuals.

Trend justification: The overall trend is increasing, although some populations may be stable (Wetlands International 2006). This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (4300% increase over 40 years, equating to a 157% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007) Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Argentina extant native
Aruba (to Netherlands) extant native
Bolivia extant native
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) extant native
Brazil extant native
Canada extant native yes
Chile extant native
Colombia extant native
Costa Rica extant native yes
Curaçao (to Netherlands) extant native
El Salvador extant native
Guatemala extant native
Honduras extant native
Mexico extant native
Nicaragua extant native
Paraguay extant native
Peru extant native
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) extant native
Uruguay extant native yes
USA extant native yes
Venezuela extant native

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Argentina Reserva de Uso Múltiple Bañados del Río Dulce y Laguna Mar Chiquita
USA Farmington Bay UT04
USA Ogden Bay UT03
USA Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge
USA Bear River Bay UT02
USA Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge
USA Market Lake Wildlife Management Area
USA Mud Lake Wildlife Management Area
USA Oxford Slough
USA Coastal Prairie
USA Cutler Reservoir and Marsh UT08
Brazil Banhado do Taim
Mexico Lago de Chapala
Mexico Geotérmica Cerro Prieto
Mexico Presa Laguna de Zumpango

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Altitude 0 - 2500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Plegadis chihi. Downloaded from on 22/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 22/02/2024.