LC
White-faced Ibis Plegadis chihi



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 32,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 29,500,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.7 - - -

Population justification: The population is estimated to number 1,200,000 individuals.

Trend justification: The overall trend is increasing, although some populations may be stable (Wetlands International 2006). This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (4300% increase over 40 years, equating to a 157% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007) Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Argentina N Extant
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Bolivia N Extant
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Brazil N Extant
Canada N Extant Yes
Chile N Extant
Colombia N Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant
El Salvador N Extant
Guatemala N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Nicaragua N Extant
Paraguay N Extant
Peru N Extant
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) N Extant
Uruguay N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Canada Pakowki Lake
Argentina Reserva de Uso Múltiple Bañados del Río Dulce y Laguna Mar Chiquita
Paraguay Parque Nacional Tinfunqué - Estero Patiño
Brazil Várzea do Canal São Gonçalo
USA Farmington Bay UT04
USA Ogden Bay UT03
USA Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge
USA Bear River Bay UT02
USA Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge
USA Market Lake Wildlife Management Area
USA Mud Lake Wildlife Management Area
USA Oxford Slough
USA Coastal Prairie
USA Cutler Reservoir and Marsh UT08
Brazil Banhado do Taim
Mexico Lago de Chapala
Mexico Geotérmica Cerro Prieto
Mexico Presa Laguna de Zumpango

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Altitude 0 - 2500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Plegadis chihi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/07/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/07/2022.