White-faced Amazon Amazona kawalli


Justification of Red List Category

This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km² combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as uncommon or rare (Stotz et al. 1996, Collar et al. 2020).

Trend justification
The species is feared to be in decline as its forested habitat is lost; moreover, occasional reports of captive birds suggest that it may be susceptible to trapping (per Collar et al. 2020). Tree cover within the range is lost at a rate equivalent to 9% over three generations (Global Forest Watch 2021, using Hansen et al. [2013] data and methods disclosed therein). The species is highly forest-dependent, and as such the rate of population decline may be higher than the rate of forest loss alone. The impact of trapping on the population size has not been quantified, but based on the low number of reports of birds in captivity, trapping pressure may not be high. The rate of population decline is therefore tentatively placed in the band 10-19% over three generations.

Distribution and population

This species was only recently discovered, and appears to be confined to the Amazon basin of Brazil in Amazonas, Pará, Rondônia and Mato Grosso. However, as a cryptic and poorly known species, it may have been overlooked and it potentially has a wider distribution than reported (del Hoyo et al. 1997, Juniper and Parr 1998, A. Lees in litt. 2011).


The species inhabits lowland rainforest, with a preference for "igapó" (permanently flooded forest) and river edge forest. It nests in cavities of trees in flooded forest, and is known to feed on tree seeds and palm fruits.


The primary threat to this species is accelerating deforestation in the Amazon basin, as land is cleared for cattle ranching and soy production, facilitated by expansion of the road network (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). It is thought that the species is vulnerable to fragmentation and disturbance (A. Lees in litt. 2011). Changes to the Brazilian Forest Code reduced the percentage of land a private landowner is legally required to maintain as forest (including, critically, a reduction in the width of forest buffers alongside perennial steams) and include an amnesty for landowners who deforested before July 2008 (Bird et al. 2011). The species may furthermore be susceptible to trapping for the local cagebird trade.

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
The species is listed under CITES Appendix II.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Quantify the population size. Investigate the species's ecology, behaviour and habitat requirements. Investigate the population structure. Quantify the levels of trade in this species. Quantify the impact of trapping on the population size. Monitor the population trend. Expand the protected area network to effectively protect key sites. Effectively manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Raise awareness for the species and its habitat. Incentivise conservation on private lands through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture (Soares-Filho et al. 2006).


35-36 cm. Medium-sized, green parrot. Mostly green, with a narrow white strip at the base of the bill, narrow white eye-ring, and some blue and red on the outermost flight feathers.


Text account compilers
Hermes, C.

Bruslund, S., Butchart, S., Dahal, P.R., Ekstrom, J., Harding, M., Khwaja, N., Lees, A., Mendes Lima, D., Subirá, R. & Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Amazona kawalli. Downloaded from on 26/09/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 26/09/2022.