White-eyed Gull Larus leucophthalmus


Almalki, M., AlRashidi, M., Shobrak, M., and Székely, T. 2014. Breeding distribution and conservation of the Crab Plover (Dromas ardeola) in Saudi Arabia (Aves: Charadriiformes). Zoology in the Middle East 60(1): 6-12.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Habib, M.I. 2017. Surveys of White-eyed Gull on islands in Red Sea, Egypt, and notes on behaviour. Durch Birding 39(1): 13-21.

Ibrahim, W.A.L. 2009. Status and Trends of Selected Important Bird Areas in Egypt. BLI/UNDB/Migratory Soaring Birds Project Natural Conservation Sector Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency Ministry of State for Environment Affair.

Olsen, K. M.; Larsson, H. 2003. Gulls of Europe, Asia and North America. Christopher Helm, London.

PERSGA/GEF. 2003. Status of breeding seabirds in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. PERSGA, Jeddah.

Rose, P.M.; Scott, D.A. 1997. Waterfowl population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Semere, D., Hagos, T., Seleba, G., Gebrezgabhier, Y., Haile, Z., Chiozzi, G. and De Marchi, G. 2008. The status of breeding seabirds and waterbirds on the Eritrean Red Sea islands. Bulletin of the African Bird Club 15: 228-237.

Shobrak, M. 2007. On the nesting status of some seabirds in Djibouti. Zoology in the Middle East 42: 59-65.

Symes, A.; Taylor, J.; Mallon, D.; Porter, R.; Simms, C.; Budd, K. 2015. The Conservation Status and Distribution of the Breeding Birds of the Arabian Peninsula. Cambridge, UK and Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, and Sharjah, UAE: Environment and Protected Areas Authority.

Urban, E.K.; Fry, C.H.; Keith, S. 1986. The Birds of Africa, Volume II. Academic Press, London.

Further resources

Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Larus leucophthalmus. Downloaded from on 27/11/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 27/11/2021.