LC
White-eyed Gull Larus leucophthalmus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Near Threatened A3de
2012 Near Threatened A3de
2010 Near Threatened A3d,e
2008 Near Threatened A3e
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 403,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 1,630,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,400 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 35800-37800 medium estimated 2008
Population trend Stable medium suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11 - - -

Population justification: PERSGA/GEF (2003) estimated there to be 12,000-13,000 pairs (excluding Eritrea), while Semere et al. (2008) recorded 5,900 pairs on Eritrean Islands. Thus the overall population size may be 35,800-37,800 mature individuals, which equates to 53,700-56,700 individuals in total.

Trend justification: The population is believed to be stable (Rose and Scott 1997, Symes et al. 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Greece V Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of V Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extinct Yes
Maldives V Extant Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Turkey V Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Egypt Hurghada archipelago
Egypt Tiran island
Egypt Wadi Gimal island
Egypt Qulân islands
Egypt Zabargad island
Egypt Siyal islands
Egypt Rawabel islands
Egypt Suez
Egypt Gebel El Zeit
Egypt Ras Mohammed National Park
Egypt Ain Sukhna
Eritrea Dehalak Archipelago and offshore islands
Eritrea Massawa coast
Sudan Mukawwar island and Dunganab bay
Somalia Jasiira Ceebaad and Jasiira Sacaada Diin
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Saudi Arabia Al-Wajh Bank
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Shuqaiq mangrove
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands
Yemen Al-Fazzah
Yemen Jaza'ir al-Hanish
Yemen Bab al-Mandab - Mawza
Yemen Islands north of Al-Hudaydah
Yemen Al-Mukha - Al-Khawkhah
Yemen Bahr Ibn Abbas - Ra's Isa
Jordan Aqaba coast and mountains
Saudi Arabia Umm al-Qamari
Yemen Midi - Al-Luhayyah
Yemen Nukhaylah - Ghulayfiqah
Yemen Aden
Djibouti Les Sept Frères
Somalia Jasiira Ceebaad and Jasiira Sacaada Diin - Marine
Eritrea Dehalak Archipelago and offshore islands - Marine
Yemen Al-Mukha - Al-Khawkhah - Marine
Eritrea Dehalak Archipelago and offshore islands - Marine
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands - Marine
Sudan Mukawwar island and Dunganab bay - Marine
Egypt Rawabel islands - Marine
Egypt Siyal islands - Marine
Egypt Zabargad island - Marine
Egypt Qulân islands - Marine
Egypt Wadi Gimal island - Marine
Saudi Arabia Al-Wajh Bank - Marine
Egypt Hurghada archipelago - Marine
Saudi Arabia Tiran island - Marine
Yemen Jaza'ir al-Zubayr

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable resident
Marine Intertidal Tidepools major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major resident
Marine Neritic Pelagic major resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Larus leucophthalmus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/07/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/07/2020.