EN
White Cockatoo Cacatua alba



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2bcd+4bcd A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Endangered A2bcd+4bcd
2018 Endangered A3cd
2016 Endangered A3cd
2013 Endangered A3cd
2012 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd
2008 Vulnerable A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2007 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 51,700 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium 1992
Population trend Decreasing medium inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 16.67 - - -

Population justification: The global population was formerly estimated to number c.43,000-183,000 individuals (Lambert 1993), however no more recent estimate has been made.

Trend justification: The predominant threat is from unsustainable levels of trapping for the cage-bird trade. CITES data indicate that at its peak in 1991, the legal international cage-bird trade was taking c.17% of the global population annually. Vetter (2009) used remote sensing techniques to track the rate and spatial pattern of forest loss in the North Maluku Endemic Bird Area between 1990 and 2003, and projected rates of deforestation over the next three generations for birds in the region with restricted range. This study estimated the rate of forest loss within the geographic and elevation range of C. alba to be c.20.2% between 1990 and 2003, and projected the loss of c.65.4% of forest in its range over the next three generations. More recent data, however, project more moderate losses of 20-30% of forest over three generations (Global Forest Watch 2021). Loss of forest which the species is dependent on, likely worsens declines due to removal of habitat and increased levels of trapping due to improved access into forest. Significant changes in forest cover on Halmahera appear to have driven a concomitant decline in the cockatoo population (F. Lambert in litt. 2012). Whilst levels of legal trade has decreased it is still widespread and ill-enforced, illegal unrecorded and unregulated trade is highly likely, so the population is inferred to be declining at a rapid rate, and is predicted to become very rapid over the next three generations (50 years).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Indonesia N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Indonesia Galela
Indonesia Tanah Putih
Indonesia Aketajawe
Indonesia Lolobata
Indonesia Labi Labi
Indonesia Gunung Sibela
Indonesia Kao
Indonesia Halmahera Timur
Indonesia Pulau Kayoa
Indonesia Ternate
Indonesia Tidore
Indonesia Yaba
Indonesia Gorogoro
Indonesia Tutupa
Indonesia Rawa Sagu Ake Jailolo
Indonesia Dote - Kobe
Indonesia Kasiruta
Indonesia Gunung Dukono

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 0 - 900 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Cacatua alba. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 05/02/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 05/02/2023.