LC
White-cheeked Tern Sterna repressa



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 8,740,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 10,600,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 400000 poor estimated 2006
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11 - - -

Population justification: Delany and Scott (2006) estimate the global population to number 600,000 individuals. This roughly equates to 400,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to unsustainable levels of egg-harvesting at its nesting colonies (del Hoyo et al. 1996).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Maldives N Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa V Extant
Sri Lanka V Extant
Sudan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Egypt Hurghada archipelago
United Arab Emirates Qarnain Island
United Arab Emirates Sir Bani Yas Islands
United Arab Emirates Yasat Island
United Arab Emirates Abu Al Abyad Island
United Arab Emirates Umm Amim
Bahrain South-west Coast
Bahrain Hawar Islands
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kharku Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bushire Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Nakhilu, Morghu and Ummal Karam islands
Iran, Islamic Republic of Sheedvar island
Iran, Islamic Republic of Faror islands
Kuwait Kubbar island
Oman Bandar Jussah
Oman Ra's Abu Da'ud
Oman Masirah island
Oman Daymaniyat Islands
Qatar Al-Aliyah island
Qatar Shara'awh island
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
Saudi Arabia Gulf of Salwah
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands
Saudi Arabia Gulf coral islands
Saudi Arabia Abu Ali
Yemen Nukhaylah - Ghulayfiqah
Yemen Al-Fazzah
Yemen Jaza'ir al-Hanish
Yemen Midi - Al-Luhayyah
Yemen Islands north of Al-Hudaydah
Yemen Al-Mukha - Al-Khawkhah
Yemen Bahr Ibn Abbas - Ra's Isa
Jordan Aqaba coast and mountains
Oman Musandam islands
Oman Al Batinah coast
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Oman Ras al Hadd
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Duqm
Oman Khor Mughsayl
Saudi Arabia Al-Wajh Bank
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
United Arab Emirates Muhaimat Island
United Arab Emirates Dayyinah Island (Diynah)
United Arab Emirates Khor Al Beidah
United Arab Emirates Al Ushsh Island
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands - Marine
United Arab Emirates Al-Ashat islands / Gulf of Salwah / Qarnayn island - Marine
Iran, Islamic Republic of Sheedvar island - Marine
Saudi Arabia Abu Ali / Gulf coral islands - Marine
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kharku island - Marine
India Burnt Island (Bandra) Vengurla Rocks
United Arab Emirates Ghagha Island
United Arab Emirates Salahah Island
United Arab Emirates Alqurm Wa Lehfeiyah (Khor Kalba)

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches major breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Back Slope suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Back Slope suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Soft Substrate suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Soft Substrate suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Lagoon suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Lagoon suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Outer Reef Channel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Outer Reef Channel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Nutrient loads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Sterna repressa. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/07/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/07/2020.