LC
White-breasted Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Halcyon smyrnensis and H. gularis (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as H. smyrnensis following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass 91 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 24,700,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals unknown not applicable not applicable 0
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.8 - - -

Population justification: The global population size has not been quantified, though in Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 170-260 pairs, which equates to 340-520 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015), with Europe forming <5% of the global range.

Trend justification: The species is suspected to be increasing owing to its ability to colonise gardens and palm oil plantations. Its range has expanded into Sumatra but it appears to be absent from Singapore where it previously occurred (del Hoyo et al. 2001). In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by at least 10% in 11.4 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bulgaria V Extant
Cambodia N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Cyprus V Extant
Egypt N Extant Yes
Greece V Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Macao (China) N Extant
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Qatar V Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Singapore N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China V Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant
Vietnam N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Turkey Göksu Delta
Turkey Amanos Mountains
Afghanistan Khost
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karkheh river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karun river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamidieh (Omidiyeh) plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Susangerd marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bushire Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Shur, Rud-i-Shirin and Rud-i-Minab deltas
Iran, Islamic Republic of Chahbahar Bay and Khor Konarak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Turkey Antalya Plains
Turkey Ceyhan Delta
Turkey Seyhan Delta

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable resident
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha) suitable resident
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Swamp suitable resident
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable resident
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable resident
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable resident
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 5000 m

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Halcyon smyrnensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/07/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/07/2020.