White-bellied Storm-petrel Fregetta grallaria


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 191,000,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 75,700,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15.2 - - -

Population justification: Brooke (2004) estimated the global population to number around 300,000 individuals.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing threats.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
American Samoa U Extant
Angola V Extant
Antarctica V Extant
Argentina N Extant
Australia N Extant Yes
Bouvet Island (to Norway) U Extant
Brazil N Extant
Chile N Extant
Congo U Extant
Cook Islands U Extant
Ecuador U Extant
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) U Extant
Fiji U Extant
French Polynesia N Extant
French Southern Territories N Extant Yes
Gabon U Extant
Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) U Extant
Kiribati U Extant
Madagascar U Extant
Maldives V Extant
Mozambique U Extant
Namibia V Extant
New Caledonia (to France) U Extant
New Zealand N Extant Yes
Niue (to New Zealand) U Extant
Norfolk Island (to Australia) U Extant
Papua New Guinea U Extant
Peru U Extant
Pitcairn Islands (to UK) U Extant
Samoa U Extant
Solomon Islands U Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands V Extant
St Helena (to UK) N Extant Yes
Tokelau (to New Zealand) U Extant
Tonga U Extant
Tuvalu U Extant
Uruguay U Extant
Vanuatu U Extant
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) U Extant
Yemen V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
St Helena (to UK) Inaccessible Island
St Helena (to UK) Nightingale Island group
St Helena (to UK) Gough Island
French Southern Territories Île Saint Paul
New Zealand Curtis & Cheeseman Islands
Chile Islas Desventuradas
Chile Parque Nacional Archipiélago de Juan Fernández: Islas Robinson Crusoe and Santa Clara
French Polynesia Ilots rocheux de Rapa et Marotiri
New Zealand Kermadec Islands (Cheeseman Island)
New Zealand Kermadec Islands (Curtis Island)
New Zealand Kermadec Islands (Macauley Island)
New Zealand Macauley & Haszard Islands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 450 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Pollution Garbage & solid waste Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Fregetta grallaria. Downloaded from on 25/03/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 25/03/2023.