White-bellied Storm-petrel Fregetta grallaria


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency does not normally occur in forest
Land-mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 191,000,000 km2
Extent of Occurrence (non-breeding) 75,700,000 km2
Severely fragmented? no -
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size unknown poor estimated 2009
Population trend decreasing - suspected -
Generation length 15.2 years - - -

Population justification: Brooke (2004) estimated the global population to number around 300,000 individuals.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing threats.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
American Samoa extant uncertain
Angola extant vagrant
Antarctica extant vagrant
Argentina extant native
Australia extant native yes
Bouvet Island (to Norway) extant uncertain
Brazil extant native
Chile extant native
Congo extant uncertain
Cook Islands extant uncertain
Ecuador extant uncertain
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) extant uncertain
Fiji extant uncertain
French Polynesia extant native
French Southern Territories extant native yes
Gabon extant uncertain
Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) extant uncertain
Kiribati extant uncertain
Madagascar extant uncertain
Maldives extant vagrant
Mozambique extant uncertain
Namibia extant vagrant
New Caledonia (to France) extant uncertain
New Zealand extant native yes
Niue (to New Zealand) extant uncertain
Norfolk Island (to Australia) extant uncertain
Papua New Guinea extant uncertain
Peru extant uncertain
Pitcairn Islands (to UK) extant uncertain
Samoa extant uncertain
Solomon Islands extant uncertain
South Africa extant native
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands extant vagrant
St Helena (to UK) extant native yes
Tokelau (to New Zealand) extant uncertain
Tonga extant uncertain
Tuvalu extant uncertain
Uruguay extant uncertain
Vanuatu extant uncertain
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) extant uncertain
Yemen extant vagrant yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
St Helena (to UK) Inaccessible Island
St Helena (to UK) Nightingale Island group
St Helena (to UK) Gough Island
French Southern Territories Île Saint Paul

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 450 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Pollution Garbage & solid waste Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Fregetta grallaria. Downloaded from on 04/12/2023.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 04/12/2023.