LC
White-bellied Sea-eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 40,500,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2600-41000 poor suspected 2020
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.3 - - -

Population justification: The global population was previously thought to number c.1,000-10,000 individuals (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). The population in China has been estimated at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs (Brazil 2009). In Australia, based on a population density of one pair per 40 km, the population is thought to number at least 500 pairs, but this is likely to be a significant underestimate (Department of the Environment 2020). In Hong Kong, 57 birds were thought to be present in 2010 (So and Lee 2010), with a recent estimate also of 15 breeding pairs (Y-T. Yu in litt. 2020). Based on several surveys along the Rakhine coast, Mawdin coast (south of Rakhine), Ayeyarwady delta, Mon State and Tanintharyi, the species is thought to be about 100-120 pairs in Myanmar (C. Zöckler in litt. 2020). In Singapore, 10-15 pairs have been reported (Y. Ding Li in litt. 2020). On account of its widespread occurrence, the overall population has also recently been considered to exceed 10,000 individuals (S. Garnett in litt. 2020). Based on all available information, the population size is here placed in the band of 2,600-41,000 mature individuals.
At least 3 subpopulations are also thought to exist in India (West Coast, East Coast, and the Andamans; S. Quader, Praveen J and A. Viswanathan in litt. 2020), however the overall population structure is unknown.

Trend justification: In Hong Kong, the population is also thought to have increased from 23 adults in 2003 (Siu-Tai et al. 2003) to 30 adults in 2009 (So and Lee 2010).
In Australia, the population size is thought to be declining, based on local declines and range contractions mainly reported in the 1980s and 1990s in New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia, although populations in the northern and remote tropical regions are thought to be stable (Department of the Environment 2020). In Victoria, the species is suspected to have declined due to the clearing of coastal forests for agricultural and urban expansion (Clunie 1994). However, an analysis of data from three Australian Bird Atlases found no significant difference in the spatial extent of occupancy between 1901-1976, 977–1981 and 1998–2001 (Shephard et al. 2005), and the reporting rate has been approximately stable since 2000 (BirdLife Australia 2020).
Recent information from the State of India's Birds (2020) suggests that the species has undergone a 72.59% decline in India in the past 25 years (C.I. 20.29%), which may equate to a reduction of 83% (C.I. 63-97%) over three generations (33.9 years). Over the last five years, an annual decline of 5.89% (C. I. 10.98%) has been estimated, which may equate to a reduction of 87% over three generations from 2015, but is highly uncertain. Further analysis of trends in India estimated a minimum decline of 12.23% between 2007-2018 and a best estimate of a 49.81% decline (S. Quader, Praveen. J and A. Wiswanathan in litt. 2020). These estimates may translate to a 33% and 88% decline respectively over a three-generation period.
Overall, there is little clear quantified evidence for a population decline (Y. Ding Li in litt. 2020). Accounting for significant declines within India or other localised declines, the overall population is nonetheless thought to be undergoing marginal reductions owing to human disturbance, shooting, poisoning, loss of suitable breeding sites caused by clearance of waterside forests and, possibly, over-use of pesticides (Ferguson-Lees and Christies 2001).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Australia N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Brunei N Extant Yes
Cambodia N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea N Extant Yes
Philippines N Extant Yes
Singapore N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China V Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable resident
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable resident
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable resident
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable resident
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 900 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 1500 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Haliaeetus leucogaster. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/07/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/07/2022.