CR
White-bellied Heron Ardea insignis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
C2a(i) A3cd+4cd; C2a(i); D A2cd+3cd+4cd; C2a(i); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2015 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2013 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2012 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2011 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2010 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2009 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2008 Critically Endangered
2007 Critically Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 165,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 290,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50-249 poor estimated 2007
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.5 - - -

Population justification: Though a complete population census is yet to be conducted, the current population size is thought to be best placed in the band 50-249 mature individuals (D. Wilson and J. Eames in litt. 2006).  This equates to 75-374 individuals in total, rounded here to 70-400 individuals.

Trend justification: A rapid decline is suspected on the basis of habitat degradation and widespread disturbance, even in remote parts of the species's range (W. J. Duckworth in litt. 2006), and this is expected to become more rapid in the near future.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bangladesh N Possibly Extinct Yes
Bhutan N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extinct Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Bangladesh Lawachara / West Bhanugach Reserved Forest
Bhutan Ada lake / Puna Tsangchu
Bhutan Jigme Dorji National Park
India Bordoloni - Sampora
India Dibru - Saikhowa Complex
India Jamjing and Sengajan
India Kaziranga National Park
India Manabum and Tengapani Reserve Forests
India Namdapha - Kamlang
India Nameri National Park
India Namsangmukh - Borduria
India Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary
India Upper Dihing (East) Complex
India Upper Dihing (West) Complex
Myanmar Ayeyarwady River: Bhamo Section
Myanmar Hkakaborazi
Myanmar Hponkanrazi
Myanmar Hukaung Valley
Myanmar Kaladan River
Myanmar Nam Sam Chaung

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded marginal resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major resident
Altitude 0 - 1500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Very Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Ardea insignis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/12/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/12/2017.