White-bellied Cinclodes Cinclodes palliatus


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
C2a(ii) C2a(ii); D C2a(i,ii); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2018 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2016 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2012 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2010 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2008 Endangered C2a(i); D1
2004 Endangered
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency does not normally occur in forest
Land-mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 4,553 medium
Area of Occupancy breeding/resident (km2) 1,632
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely fragmented? no -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Number of mature individuals 50-249 poor estimated 2020
Population trend decreasing poor inferred -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -
Generation length (years) 3.98 - - -

Population justification: The species is rare and local, being absent from large areas of apparently suitable habitat. In 2003, 28 individuals were counted at six known sites (G. Engblom in litt. 2003); given the number of suitable bogs within its range it was suggested that the global population may potentially number as many as 200-1,000 individuals (G. Engblom in litt. 2003), but is probably closer to the lower figure (J. Barrio in litt. 2009; R. E. Gibbons in litt. 2009). During the surveys from 2008 to 2011, 104 bogs were searched yielding 113 individuals at 18 of these (J. Barrio in litt. 2012). Given the number of suitable bogs within its range it is estimated that the global population may number less than 300 individuals, which would include fewer than 250 mature individuals (J. Barrio in litt. 2012; see also SERFOR 2018). The population is thus here placed in the band 50-249 mature individuals.
The subpopulation structure has not been formally investigated. Nevertheless, given its very small range and occasional records of stray individuals far away from suitable habitat (eBird 2021; J. Barrio in litt. 2021), it is tentatively assumed that the species is able to disperse between sites, so that all individuals would belong to the same subpopulation.

Trend justification: The species is precautionarily inferred to be in decline as suitable bogs within the range have been destroyed by mining activities and are being degraded by overgrazing, through the dumping of deposits, and water and peat extraction. Formerly occupied sites have suffered from mining activities, leading to their partial or complete destruction and the local extinction of the species. At undisturbed sites, the species was found to be stable (F. Angulo in litt. 2021). The rate of population decline has not been quantified.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Peru extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Peru Lago de Junín
Peru Marcapomacocha
Peru Pampas Pucacocha y Curicocha
Peru Yauli

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable resident
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major resident
Altitude 4300 - 5000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Cinclodes palliatus. Downloaded from on 29/09/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 29/09/2023.