LC
White-backed Woodpecker Dendrocopos leucotos



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Dendrocopos leucotos and D. owstoni (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as D. leucotos following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass 108 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 40,600,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1300000-3399999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.2 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 232,000-586,000 pairs, which equates to 464,000-1,170,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.35% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 1,320,000-3,350,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline. Massive declines have been observed in Scandinavia. The population is in decline locally throughout much of its range owing to intensive forestry management, removal of dead wood and introduction of conifers (del Hoyo et al. 2002). It has apparently extended its range in Slovenia and Switzerland. However the apparent expansion in Slovenia is now thought to be as a result of an increased number of observers (K. Denac in litt. 2015). The European population trend is thought to be stable in the short-term (2000-2012) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Netherlands V Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Czechia Sumava mountains (Bohemian forest)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Boracko jezero
Serbia Vršačke Planine
North Macedonia Shar Planina Mountain
North Macedonia Kozhuf mountain and Boshava river
North Macedonia River Radika catchment
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Bielaviežškaja Pušča
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Lithuania Zuvintas Biosphere Reserve
Liechtenstein Garselli-Zigerberg, Alpengebiet
Estonia Põhja-Liivimaa
Estonia Soomaa
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Latvia Ziemelu bogs
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Latvia Berzpils bogs and flood-plains
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Slitere and Zilie kalni
Latvia Lielais Kemeru bog
Latvia Dunika bog
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds
Latvia Dviete flood-plain
Latvia Augstroze
Latvia Satini fish-ponds
Latvia Cena bog
Latvia Gauja national park
Latvia Orlovas bog
Latvia Zabolotje bogs
Latvia Sita and Pededze flood-plain
Latvia Aiviekste flood-plain
Latvia Mangene forest
Latvia Kalnciems meadows and Odini fields
Latvia Ukri forest
Latvia Seda marsh
Latvia Zvarde forest
Latvia Panemune forest
Latvia Vecumi
Latvia Pededze forest and Parabaine
Latvia Abeli
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Bulgaria Strandzha
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Romania Niculitel and Babadag forest
Romania Trascău Mountains
Romania Retezat Mountains
Romania Domogled - Cernei valley
Romania Padiş - Vlădeasa mountain
Slovenia Kočevsko
Turkey Uludağ
Turkey İlgaz Mountains
Turkey İğneada Forests
Sweden Färnebofjärden
Sweden River Dal – Håvran
Sweden Lake Solgen
Sweden Båtfors – Bredfors
Sweden Dannemora
Poland Tatra mountains
Poland Gorce mountains
Poland Bieszczady Mountains
Poland Parczew forests
Poland Tysmienica river valley
Poland Bialowieza Forest
Poland Knyszyn Forest
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Borecka forest
Poland Oswin site
Poland Nietlice marshes
Poland Kampinos forest
Poland Gródek-Michalowo basin
Poland Przemysl Plateau
Poland Solska Forest
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Vourinos
Greece Antichasia mountains and Meteora
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Akarnanika mountains
Greece Mount Gkiona
Greece Mount Oiti
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinountas gorge
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Mounts Orliakas and Tsourgiakas
Greece Agrafa mountains
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Koijärvi lake
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Hungary Börzsöny
Hungary Zemplén Mountains
Hungary Bükk
Hungary Aggtelek Karst
Hungary Mátra
Russia (European) Kletnyanski forest
Russia (European) Gavan'skie oak-forest
Spain Roncesvalles-Irati-Abodi mountain range
Spain Belagua-Ansó-Hecho
Ukraine Carpathian Biosphere Reserve
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Carpathian Vulkanichnyj Mountains
France Haute Soule : Massif Forestier, Gorges d'Holzarte et d'Olhadubi
France Haute Soule : Forêt des Arbailles
France Haute Soule : Forêt d'Irraty, Organbidexka et Pic des Escaliers
France Rive Gauche de la Vallée d'Aspe et Pic d'Anie
France Hautes Vallées d'Aspe et d'Ossau
France Pènes du Moulle de Jaut
France Haute Soule : massif de la Pierre-St-Martin.
France Pic de l'Estibet et Mondragon
France Vallée de la Nive des Aldudes-Col de Lindux
France Haute Cize : Pic d'Errozate et Forêt d'Orion
France Vallées du Lis et de la Pique
Italy Rieti mountains
Italy Ernici and Simbruini mountains
Italy Sirente, Velino and Duchessa mountains
Italy Abruzzo National Park
Italy Gargano promontory
Czechia Beskydy mountains
Georgia Eastern Caucasus
Serbia Tara mountain
Slovakia Velká Fatra
Slovakia Slanské hills
Slovakia Vihorlat
Slovakia Volovské hills
Austria Surroundings of Mattersburg
Austria Zoological Gardens of Lainz
Austria Thermenlinie
Austria Vienna forest
Austria Wachau
Austria Lower Kamp valley
Austria Niederösterreichische Randalpen
Austria Ötscher-Dürrenstein
Austria Freiwald
Austria Northern Kalkalpen
Austria Salzach valley
Austria Hohe Tauern National Park
Austria Styrian Enns valley
Austria Nockberge National Park
Austria Kaisergebirge
Austria Tyrolian Lech valley
Austria Silvretta and Verwall
Austria Slope forests in the Klostertal
Germany Bayerischer Wald National Park with Arber region and Hohem Bogen
Germany Ammergau mountains
Germany Karwendel and Karwendel foothills
Germany Berchtesgaden National Park
Germany Mangfall mountains and Rotwand area
Germany Murnauer Moos and Loisach-Kochel-Moore
Croatia Mount Velebit
Germany Adelegg
Germany High alps of Allgäu
Germany Eastern Chiemgau Alps
Germany Wetterstein mountain range
Latvia Sturu and Zvardes bogs
Latvia Ziemelgauja
Lithuania Lanciunava forest
Lithuania Gruzai, Uzulenis, Taujenai, Skaistuziai and neighbouring forests complex
Poland Pasleka river valley
Turkey Terkos Basin
Estonia Väinameri
Czechia Hostynske vrchy hills
Latvia Adazi
Latvia Mezole
Latvia Stompaku bogs
Latvia Kuja
Latvia Augsdaugava
Latvia Razna
Latvia Kemeri national park
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan
Bulgaria Sredna Gora
Bulgaria Rila
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Western Rhodopes
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Vitosha Mountain
Bulgaria Belasitza mountain
Bulgaria Persenk
Poland Mosty-Zahajki Site
Austria Karwendel
Poland Wizna Swamps
Hungary North Bakony
Poland Dobskie Lake
Poland Skaliskie Forest
Poland Lukow Forests
Poland Polesie
Poland Warmia Site
Poland Solokija River Valley
Poland Beskid Zywiecki Mountains
Poland Babia Gora Mountain
Poland Polica Mountain Range
Poland Beskid Niski Mountains
Poland Slonne Mountains
Slovenia Snežnik plateau and Pivka valley
Lithuania Padauguva forest complex
Lithuania Babtai-Varlenai forest complex
Croatia Plitvice Lakes National Park
Croatia Gorski Kotar and Northern Lika
Slovakia Laborecka upland
Turkey Yenice forest
Poland Pieniny Mountains
Poland Roztocze
Turkey Küre Mountains
Turkey Karçal Mountains
Turkey Eastern Black Sea Mountains
Romania Grădiştea Muncelului
Romania Frumoasa
Romania Dealurile Nordice ale Munţilor Făgăraş
Romania Baraolt Mountains - Bodoc
Romania Almăjului Mountains - Locvei
Romania Nerei gorge - Beuşniţa
Romania Caraş gorge - Semenic Mountains
Poland Beskid Slaski Mountains
Poland Beskid Wyspowy Mountains
Poland Grzeda Sokalska Beechwood
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Poprad Site
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
Slovenia Gluha loza
Slovenia Trnovski gozd
Estonia Kikepera
Estonia Kärevere
Estonia Ropka-Ihaste
Estonia Räpina polder
Estonia Vooremaa
Estonia Agusalu
Estonia Haanja
Estonia Karula
Estonia Koiva-Mustjõe
Estonia Kõnnumaa-Väätsa
Estonia Kõrvemaa
Estonia Käntu-Kastja
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Marimetsa-Õmma
Estonia Meenikunno bog
Estonia Misso
Serbia Derdap gorge
Serbia Golija
Serbia Gornji Visok and Vidlic
Serbia Homolje
Serbia Kucaj-Beljanica

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Forest Temperate major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1850 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Dendrocopos leucotos. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/08/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/08/2020.