White-backed Vulture Gyps africanus


Allan, D. G. 2015. White-backed Vulture Gyps africanus. In: Taylor, M. R.; Peacock, D.; Wanless, R. M. (ed.), The 2015 Eskom Red Data Book of Birds of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland, pp. 61-66. BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Anon. 2013. Birdlife Botswana launches campaign following poisoning of 1000 vultures. Available at: (Accessed: 24/09/2015).

Bamford, A.J.; Monadjem, A.; Hardy, I.C.W. 2009. Nesting habitat preference of the African White-backed Vulture Gyps africanus and the effects of anthopogenic disturbance. Ibis 151(1): 51-62.

BirdLife Botswana. 2008. The Status of Globally and Nationally Threatened Birds in Botswana.

BirdLife International. 2008. Drugs firms told to do more to prevent vulture extinctions. Available at: #

Botha, A.J.; Andevski, J.; Bowden, C.G.R.; Gudka, M.; Safford, R.J.; Tavares, J.; Williams, N. P. 2017. Multi-species Action Plan to Conserve African-Eurasian Vultures. MS Raptors MOU Technical Publication No. 5. CMS Technical Series No. xx. Coordinating Unit of the CMS Raptors MOU, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Available at:

Brown, C.J.; Simmons, R.E. 2015. White-backed Vulture Gyps africanus. In: Simmons, R.E.; Brown, C.J.; Kemper, J. (ed.), Birds to watch in Namibia: Red, rare and endemic species, pp. 102-105. Ministry of Environment and Tourism, Namibia Nature Foundation.

Buij, R.; Nikolaus, G.; Whytock, R.; Ingram, D.J.; Ogada, D. 2016. Trade of threatened vultures and other raptors for fetish and bushmeat in West and Central Africa. Oryx 50(4): 606-616.

de Swardt, D.H. 2013. White-backed Vultures nesting on electricity pylons in the Boshof area, Free State, South Africa. Vulture News 65: 48.

Dowsett-Lemaire, F.; Dowsett, R.J. 2014. The Birds of Ghana: An Atlas and Handbook. Tauraco Press, Liège, Belgium.

Garbett, R.; Maude, G.; Hancock, P.; Kenny, D.; Reading, R.; Amar, A. 2018. Association between hunting and elevated blood lead levels in the critically endangered African white-backed vulture Gyps africanus. Science of the Total Environment 630: 1654-1665.

Groom, R.J.; Gandiwa, E.; van der Westhuizen, H.J. 2013. A mass poisoning of White-backed and Lappet-faced Vultures in Gonarezhou National Park. Honeyguide 59(1): 5-9.

Kendall, C.; Virani, M. 2012. Assessing mortality of african vultures using wing tags and GSM-GPS transmitters. Journal of Raptor Research.

McKean, S.; Botha, A. 2007. Traditional medicine demand threatens vultures in Southern Africa.

McKean, S.; Mander, M.; Diederichs, N.; Ntuli, L.; Mavundla, K.; Williams, V.; Wakelin, J. 2013. The impact of traditional use on vultures in South Africa. Vulture News 65: 15-36.

Murn, C.; Botha, A. 2018. A clear and present danger: Impacts of poisoning on a vulture population and the effect of poison response activities. Oryx 52(3): 552-558.

Naidoo, V.; Wolter, K.; Botha, C.J. 2017. Lead ingestion as a potential contributing factor to the decline in vulture populations in southern Africa. Environmental Research 152: 150-156.

Nikolaus, G. 2006. Commentary: where have the African vultures gone? Vulture News: 65-67.

Ogada, D.; Botha, A.; Shaw, P. 2016. Ivory poachers and poison: Drivers of Africa's declining vulture populations. Oryx 50(4): 593-596.

Ogada, D.; Keesing, F. 2010. Decline of raptors over a three-year period in Laikipia, central Kenya. Journal of Raptor Research 44: 129-135.

Ogada, D.; Shaw, P.; Beyers, R.L.; Buij, R.; Murn, C.; Thiollay, J.M.; Beale, C.M.; Holdo, R.M.; Pomeroy, D.; Baker, N.; Krüger, S.C.; Botha, A.; Virani, M.Z.; Monadjem, A.; Sinclair, A.R.E. 2016. Another continental vulture crisis: Africa’s vultures collapsing toward extinction. Conservation Letters 9: 89-97.

Otieno, P.O.; Lalah, J.O.; Virani, M., Jondiko, I.O.; Schramm, K. 2010. Carbofuran and its toxic metabolites provide forensic evidence for Furadan exposure in vultures (Gyps africanus) in Kenya. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 84: 536-544.

Pomeroy, D.; Kaphub, G.; Nalwangac, D.; Ssemmandad, R.; Lotukb, B.; Opetob, A.; Matsikob, M. 2012. Counting vultures at provisioned carcasses in Uganda. Vulture News 62: 25-32.

Roxburgh, L.; McDougall, R. 2012. Vulture poisoning incidents and the status of vultures in Zambia and Malawi. Vulture News 62: 33-39.

Thiollay, J.-M. 2006. Severe declines of large birds in the northern Sahel of West Africa: a long-term assessment. Bird Conservation International 16(4): 353-365.

Virani, M.; Kendall, C.; Njoroge, P.; Thomsett, S. 2011. Major declines in the abundance of vultures and other scavenging raptors in and around the Masai Mara ecosystem, Kenya. Biological Conservation 144: 746-752.

WCS. 2016. Nationally Threatened Species for Uganda.

Western, D.; Russell, S.; Cuthill, I. 2009. The Status of Wildlife in Protected Areas Compared to Non-Protected Areas of Kenya. PLoS One 4(7): e6140.

Woodford, M.H.; Bowden, C.G.R.; Shah, N. 2008. Diclofenac in Asia and Africa – repeating the same mistake? Harmonisation and improvement of registration and quality control of Veterinary Medicinal Products in Africa - OIE World Organisation for Animal Health.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Vulture Specialist Group

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Gyps africanus. Downloaded from on 22/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 22/10/2021.