NT
Whistling Dove Chrysoena viridis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Chrysoena viridis (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Ptilinopus as P. layardi following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993); the name viridis has priority over layardi.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Near Threatened C1
2013 Near Threatened C1
2012 Near Threatened C1
2008 Near Threatened C1
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 920 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 6700 medium estimated 2005
Population trend Decreasing medium suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-9 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-9 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -

Population justification: Recent BirdLife Fiji surveys found this species to be common in evergreen forests, with 53 birds recorded (mostly calling males) in 23.5 hours a mixed lowland and montane site and 17 birds in 15 hours at a montane site. Estimating an average pace 1 km / hour and an effective detection distance of 50 m each side of the trail suggests that around 23 and 11 birds were detected per km2 at these sites, mostly calling males. There are a number of likely errors in this estimate, especially the number of silent birds overlooked and the species' higher abundance at lower altitudes (where calling males can be as little as 100 m apart). The area of dense and medium-dense forest on Kadavu is around 225 km2, suggesting that the total population is around 10,000 birds. However the species also occurs on the island of Ono which probably constitutes a second sub-population (as this and other Chrysoena doves are rarely seen flying outside forest and have not been recorded from smaller islands), numbering about 5% of the total population (G. Duston in litt. 2005). In total the population is estimated to number at least 10,000 individuals, roughly equivalent to 6,700 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be declining based on rate of habitat loss. The population trend is estimated to be declining at the same rate as forest loss and degradation on Kadavu, which is estimated to be 0.5-0.8 % per year across Fiji (Claasen 1991), but probably higher on Kadavu which has suffered extensive fires in recent years. The population may therefore be declining at a rate that approaches 10% in ten years (G. Duston in litt. 2005).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Fiji N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Fiji East Kadavu
Fiji Nabukelevu

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Trend Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Chrysoena viridis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/03/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/03/2020.