LC
Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 139,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 130,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9.9 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.300,000-1,500,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 66,300-108,000 pairs, which equates to 133,000-215,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). National population estimates include: c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in China; c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; < c.1,000 individuals on migration in Korea; c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Japan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is fluctuating, although some populations are stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). The European population trend is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Australia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Benin N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso V Extant
Burundi V Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon V Extant
Cape Verde V Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Christmas Island (to Australia) V Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant
Czech Republic N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti V Extant
Egypt N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Eritrea V Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia N Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Lesotho V Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Maldives V Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta V Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant
New Zealand V Extant
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda V Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Swaziland N Extant
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland N Extant
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant Yes
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
USA V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Australia Alligator Rivers Floodplains
Australia Fortescue Marshes
Australia Mandora Marsh and Anna Plains
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Botswana Lake Ngami
Bulgaria Belene Islands Complex
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Kalimok Complex
Bulgaria Malak Preslavets marsh
Bulgaria Mechka Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Obnova Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Tsibarsko Marsh
Bulgaria Zvanichevo Fish-ponds
Cambodia Bassac Marsh
Cambodia Chhnuk Tru
Croatia Grudnjak and Nasice Carp Fishponds
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Lower Posavina
Croatia Podunavlje and Lower Podravlje
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Egypt Lake Burullus
Egypt Lake Manzala
France Brenne centrale
France Camargue
France Etang de Capestang
France Etangs de Sologne: étang de l'Arche
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Etangs Narbonnais
France La Dombes
France Marais de Brière
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre
France Plaine du Forez
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Ghana Keta Lagoon Ramsar Site
Greece Agra artificial lake
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Lake Chimaditis and Lake Zazaris
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Hungary Alkaline lakes of Kiskunság
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton
India Kole Wetland
India Sulekere Lake
India Vembanad Lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bibishervan and Lake Eymar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lapoo - Zargmarz ab-bandans
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iraq Razzaza Lake
Iraq West Hammar
Israel Carmel coast
Italy Bassa Modenese
Italy Valli Bolognesi
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay
Kenya Tana River Delta
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Madagascar Bemamba Wetland Complex
Madagascar Lake Ihotry - Mangoky Delta Complex NPA
Malaysia Pulau Bruit National Park
Mali Lac Débo - Lac Oualado Débo
Pakistan Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Brzeszcze ponds
Poland Druzno lake
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Nielisz Site
Poland Polesie
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
Poland Upper Vistula River Valley
Poland Upper Wisla River Valley
Poland Warta River Mouth
Portugal Cabrela
Portugal Paul do Boquilobo
Romania Black Sea
Romania Calafat - Ciuperceni - Dunăre
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Comana
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin)
Romania Ilfov reservoir
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Romania Lake Brateş
Romania Lake Bugeac
Romania Lake Dunăreni
Romania Lake Gălăţui
Romania Lake Oltina
Romania Maglavit
Romania Măxineni
Romania Prut river flood-plain - Vlădeşti - Frumuşiţa
Russia (European) Delta of the Kuban' river
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Kizlyar Bay
Russia (European) Mouth of Yeya river
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje
Serbia Jegricka
Serbia Mala Vrbica
Serbia Srednje Potamišje
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Slovakia Medzibodrozie
Slovakia Senné
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes
Spain Almenara marshes
Spain Ampurdán marshes
Spain Ebro delta
Spain El Hondo wetland
Spain El Moro marshes
Spain Gallocanta lake
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon
Spain Mata and Torrevieja lagoons
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano
Spain Santa Pola salt-pans
Tanzania Eluanata dam
Tanzania Nyumba ya Mungu reservoir
Tanzania Yaida Chini
Thailand Inner Gulf of Thailand
Turkey Batmış Lake (Cil Lake)
Turkey Çavuşçu Lake
Turkey Işıklı Lake
Turkey Karamık Marshes
Turkey Kozanlı Gökgöl
Turkey Marmara Lake
Turkey Meriç Delta
Turkey Sultan Marsh
Turkey Terkos Basin
Turkey Uluabat Lake
Ukraine Fishponds near Kukil'nyky village
Ukraine Ikva river valley
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Kryva peninsula
Ukraine Kugurluj and Kartal lakes
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Mikulinetskie fish-ponds
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Snyvoda river valley
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Udaj river valley
Zambia Barotse Floodplains
Zambia Kafue Flats
Zambia Liuwa Plain National Park

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Chlidonias hybrida. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/06/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/06/2019.