LC
Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 139,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 130,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9.9 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.300,000-1,500,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 66,300-108,000 pairs, which equates to 133,000-215,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). National population estimates include: c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in China; c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; < c.1,000 individuals on migration in Korea; c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Japan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is fluctuating, although some populations are stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). The European population trend is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Australia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Benin N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso V Extant
Burundi V Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon V Extant
Cape Verde V Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Christmas Island (to Australia) V Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti V Extant
Egypt N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Eritrea V Extant
Eswatini N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia N Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Lesotho V Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Maldives V Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta V Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant
New Zealand V Extant
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda V Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland N Extant
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant Yes
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
USA V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Montenegro Lake Skadar
Serbia Labudovo okno
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bardaca
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Portugal Paul do Boquilobo
Portugal Paul do Taipal
Bulgaria Srebarna
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Lake Taşaul
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Lake Siutghiol
Romania Rotbav fish-ponds
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Parches-Somova wetland
Romania Lake Fundata
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain
Romania Fizes valley
Romania Mehedinti fish-ponds-Gârla Mare
Romania Mehedinti fish-ponds-Gruia
Turkey Meriç Delta
Turkey Marmara Lake
Turkey Işıklı Lake
Turkey Çavuşçu Lake
Turkey Sultan Marsh
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Woniesc reservoir
Poland Tysmienica river valley
Poland Upper Wisla River Valley
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Druzno lake
Poland Warta River Mouth
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Strymonas estuary
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Psili Ammos lagoon, Samos
Greece Lake Amvrakia
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Lagoons of Kerkyra island
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Greece Lakes Trichonis and Lysimachia
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton
Hungary Bihar Plain
Hungary Lake Fertő
Hungary Vértes
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság
Hungary Kis-Sárrét
Hungary Kisköre reservoir
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Hungary Lake Fehér at Gátér
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Volga Delta
Russia (European) Kalininski Plavny
Russia (European) Mouth of Yeya river
Russia (European) Lake Manych-Gudilo
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain El Hondo wetland
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Pego-Oliva marshes
Spain Llobregat delta
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon
Spain Gallocanta lake
Spain Ampurdán marshes
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano
Spain Almenara marshes
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes
Spain Santa Pola salt-pans
Spain Mata and Torrevieja lagoons
Spain El Moro marshes
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Kazantip Cape, Aktash lake and Astanins'ka marsh
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Sul's'ka bay
Ukraine Chervone marsh
Ukraine Udaj river valley
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Petropavlivs'kyj lyman
Ukraine Supij marsh
Ukraine Stokhod river valley
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Stanychno-Lugans'ke fish-farm
Ukraine Dranyts'kyj protected locality
Ukraine Dnestr valley between Staryj Martyniv and Marynopil' villages
Ukraine Fishponds near Kukil'nyky village
Ukraine Mikulinetskie fish-ponds
Ukraine Chonovyny marsh
Ukraine Ikva river valley
Ukraine Orikhivski lake-system
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Etang de Thau
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre
France Camargue
France Brenne centrale
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Etangs de Sologne: étang de l'Arche
France Etang de Capestang
France Marais de Brière
France La Dombes
France Plaine du Forez
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Planèze de Saint-Flour
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Domaine d'Orx
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Réserve Naturelle du courant d'Huchet
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Queue de Brenne : Etang des Loges, Grand et Petit Mez
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etang du Bagnas
France Cordon lagunaire de Sète à Agde
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Cap Gris-nez
France Moyenne Vallée de la Durance
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Basse vallée du Var
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy Valli di Argenta
Italy Lake Alviano
Italy Torrile LIPU reserve
Italy Ponte Buriano-Lago della Penna
Italy Simeto mouth and middle course and Biviere di Lentini
Serbia Jegricka
Serbia Danube loess bluffs
Georgia Javakheti Plateau
Georgia Kolkheti
Serbia Carska bara
Serbia Srednje Potamišje
Slovakia Senné
Serbia Mala Vrbica
Armenia Armash fish-farm
Turkey Uluabat Lake
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Croatia Kopacki Rit Special Zoological Reserve
Croatia Lower Posavina
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Croatia Nasicka Breznica fish-ponds
Croatia Grudnjak fish-ponds
Botswana Lake Ngami
Egypt Lake Manzala
Egypt Lake Burullus
Ghana Keta Lagoon Ramsar Site
Kenya Tana River Delta
Madagascar Bemamba Wetland Complex
Mali Lac Débo - Lac Oualado Débo
Tanzania Eluanata dam
Tanzania Nyumba ya Mungu reservoir
South Africa Mkuzi Game Reserve
Zambia Liuwa Plain National Park
Zambia Barotse Floodplains
Zambia Kafue Flats
Ukraine Kryva peninsula
Ukraine Snyvoda river valley
Ukraine Kugurluj and Kartal lakes
Israel Carmel coast
Iraq Haur Al Hammar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lapoo - Zargmarz ab-bandans
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bibishervan and Lake Eymar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Vietnam Binh Dai
Russia (European) Kizlyar Bay
Malaysia Pulau Bruit National Park
Thailand Inner Gulf of Thailand
Pakistan Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary
Cambodia Chhnuk Tru
Cambodia Bassac Marsh
India Sulekere Lake
India Kole Wetland
India Vembanad Lake
Belarus Sporaŭskaje balota
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Portugal Cabrela
Russia (European) Izhevsk flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Central Meschera lake system
Afghanistan Kole Hashmat Khan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gori Gol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Voshmigir dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
United Arab Emirates Ramtha lagoons
Bulgaria Kalimok Complex
Bulgaria Mechka Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Belene Islands Complex
Bulgaria Malak Preslavets marsh
Bulgaria Tsibarsko Marsh
Bulgaria Obnova Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Zvanichevo Fish-ponds
Ukraine Buzhok river valley (Anastavtsi)
Ukraine Reservoir on r. Chechva with territories adjacent
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Poland Barycz river valley
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Poland Ner River Valley
Poland Pasleka river valley
Poland Middle Bug river valley
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Insko Site
Italy Ticino river
Russia (European) Nizhnekumskiye floods
Poland Trzebiatow Site
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Poland Warmia Site
Poland Wizna Swamps
Poland Wkra and Mlawka Rivers Valleys
Poland Mala Welna River Valley
Poland Mosty-Zahajki Site
Poland Polesie
Russia (European) Delta of the Kuban' river
Hungary Alkaline lakes of Kiskunság
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Turkey Batmış Lake (Cil Lake)
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Narew river gaps
Australia Alligator Rivers Floodplains
Turkey Kozanlı Gökgöl
Turkey Antalya Plains
Turkey Karamık Marshes
Poland Tyszowce Site
Poland Nielisz Site
Turkey Terkos Basin
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség
Slovakia Medzibodrozie
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Podunavlje and Lower Podravlje
Croatia Grudnjak and Nasice Carp Fishponds
Croatia Pokuplje Basin
Italy Valli Bolognesi
Italy Bassa Modenese
Poland Upper Vistula River Valley
Australia Fortescue Marshes
Australia Mandora Marsh and Anna Plains
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Romania Lake Bugeac
Romania Calafat - Ciuperceni - Dunăre
Romania Comana
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin)
Romania Prut river flood-plain - Vlădeşti - Frumuşiţa
Romania Lake Gălăţui
Romania Lake Brateş
Romania Lake Oltina
Romania Maglavit
Romania Măxineni
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Romania Lake Dunăreni
Romania Black Sea
Romania Ilfov reservoir
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Poland Miedwie site
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Lower Narew River Valley
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Poland Liwiec river valley
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Samica Valley
Poland Middle Odra River Valley
Poland Oak-hornbeam forests in the Odra valley
Poland Bzura River Valley
Poland Bubnow Marsh
Poland Chelm calcareous marshes
Poland Por River Valley
Poland Roztocze
Poland Upper Labunka River Valley
Poland Solokija River Valley
Poland Otmuchów reservoir
Poland Nysa reservoir
Poland Brzeszcze ponds
Poland Lower Sola River Valley
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley
Poland Lower Wieprz River Valley
Poland Stobrawa Watershed
Poland Kuznica Warezynska Reservoir
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Kwiecewo Site
Poland Satopy-Samulewo Site
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
Poland Sredzka Struga and Maskawa River Valley
Madagascar Lake Ihotry - Mangoky Delta Complex NPA
Slovenia River Drava
South Africa Swartkops Estuary - Redhouse and Chatty Saltpans
Ethiopia Lake Zeway
Iraq Razzaza Lake
Iraq West Hammar
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje
Russia (European) Velikomikhailovski fishponds and floodplain of Kholok river
Mauritania Lac d'Aleg
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli
Philippines Manila Bay
Tanzania Yaida Chini
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Serbia Carska Bara
Serbia Becej fishpond
Serbia Becej fish-pond
Senegal Joal-Fadiouth

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Chlidonias hybrida. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/09/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/09/2020.